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2 unique features of meiosis
synapsis * reduction divison
part of a parent body becomes seperate from the rest and differentiates to become a new individual
the smallest compete unit of life
Chemical Bonds
energy that holds atoms together
Covalant Bonds
Strong bond formed when 2 atoms share electrons -Very directional
Define: Crossing Over
When the arms of certain non-sister chomatids cross over each other it increases genetic variation. It does this by introducing more potential combinations of genes.
Define: Fission
Division of cells into two identical calls by mitosis
Define: Hydrolysis
a proccess where a water molecule is added which allows the division of the macromolecule into smaller components.
Define: Independant Assortment
Each gamet recieves one homologue of each chromosome. Each of the paris of chromosomes segregate independantly
Dsefine: Random Fertiliization
Each individual zygote that is formed is the uniion of 3 adults
measure of how well the nucleus of a an atom with a covalant bond attrats the shared electrons (higher electrongetativity= stronger attraction)
cells engulf other cells and particles by extending their plasma membranes toward them
Eukaryotic Cell
Everything except Archea & Bacteria
Examples of macromolecules
Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids
How are macromolecules formed
formed by building monomers (small molecules) together to form polymers( long chain)
How are subunits of macromolecules combined?
through dehydration synthesis
Hydrogen Bonds
occur in polar molecules Postitve end attracts to negaitive Important to biologicla molecules
water loving molecules
Identify Active Transport
requires energy to open protein channels through the plasma membrane Channels are one way paths
Ionic Bonds
2 atoms are attracted by opposite charge
Very large organic molecules
Name 3 major mechanisims that have substantially increased genetic variation
(1) Independant Assortment (2) Crossing Over (3) Random Fertilization
Non Polar molecules
Molecules in which there is little different of electronegatively
Polar Molecule
Molecules that havea a large difference in electronegativity of an atom
Proton Pump
Channels that spend metabolic energy to pump protons across membranes
Sodium Potassium Pump
uses energy from ATP soduium ions are pumped out of cells Potassium ions are pumped into cells.
Types of Asexual Reproduction
(1) Fission (2) Budding
Water is very ______. Other ______substances are attracted to its molecules
What does reproduction at the cellular level require?
mitosis & meosis
What does the plasma membrane consist of?
Phosphate ( very polar) Lipids (non polar)
What happens with hydrogen bonds and water?
Ice forms.
What is inside a Eukaryotic cell
organelles (membrane bound structures)
What three properties of water are due to hydrogen bonds?
(1)Heat Storage (2)High Heat of Vaporization (3) Coheision - individual molecules held together strongly
what two ways can reproduction at the organismal level be?
(1) Sexual (2) Asexual
Why has sexual reproduction have a huge affect on the evolution of species?
becuase of its ability to rapidly produce new genetic combinations

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