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Anatomy Urine Test


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kidney functions
-regulate blood composition (Na, K, Ca, Cl)
-regulate pH (H and bicarb), osmolarity, glucose
-regulate blood volume (conserve/eliminate water)
-regulate blood pressure (secrete renin)
-excrete wastes
renal capsule
-surrounds kidney, gives structure
-need because kidney is retroperitoneal
renal fascia
-goes around kidney and adrenal gland
-anchors to wall
adipose tissue
-used for shock absorption and insulation
quadratus lumborum
-refered kidney pain goes to the back muscles
urinary system organs
-kidneys, bladder, ureter, urethra
-kidneys located under floating ribs
-ureters come out of kidneys (lead to bladder, which stores urine)
-urethra leaves bladder and exits body
structure of kidney
-lobes consist of cortex, medulla, and sinuses
-cortex contains nephron and blood vessels
-medulla is divided into pyramids (contain blood vessels and some nephron)
urine dumps into sinuses
-minor calyces
-major calyces
-renal pelvis
blood flow to kidney
-renal artery goes in, divides to afferent arterioles
-lead to glomerular capillary bed
-come out through efferent arteriole, lead to peritubular capillary bed (or vasa recta)
-merge and come out renal vein
parts of a nephron
-glomerular capsule
-proximal convoluted tube
-loop of Henle (first part of nephron that enters medulla, descending and ascending limb)
-distal convoluted tubule (drains into collecting duct)
mesangial cells
-wrap around entire capillary bed
-have muscle cells that contract, help regulate how much you filter
-wrap around one capillary
-prevent too much stuff from leaving
cortical nephrons
-main type of nephron
-almost completely in cortex
-filter and reabsorb
juxtamedullary nephrons
-starts close to junction, loop of Henle is deep into medulla
-does alot more concentrating of urine
intercalated cells
-in collecting duct
-help to regulate pH (bicarb and H+
principal cells
-in collecting duct
-mostly for Na+(aldosterone) and H2O(ADH)
renal tubules
-filter almost everything out
-proximal convoluted tubes reabsorb things into blood stream
-anything left in tubes goes down loop of Henle
-descending limb reabsorbs H2O
-ascending limb reabsorbs Na+ (both go into vaso rectum)
-anything you don't reabsorb goes to distal convoluted tube and collecting duct (fine tune urine based on hormones, empties into minor caluces)
juxtaglomerular apparatus
-as loop of Henle comes back up, passes by afferent and efferent neurons
-cells in between are the JG apparatus
-composed of macula densa and JG cells
macula densa cells
-sensory cells, tell JG to constrict or dialate afferent or efferent neurons
-sense osmolality and GFR in distal convoluted tubule
-begins at renal pelvic travels to urinary bladder
-enter bladder posterior and interior
-mucous coat, muscular coat, and fibrous coat
-flap at end to prevent urine from going backwards
detrusor muscle
-major muscle in urinary bladder, contracts to push urine out
-in bladder, triangle shape
-composed of 2 ureters and 1 urethra
urinary bladder
-mucous layer, submucous layer, muscular coat, serous coat
-urine fills in from bottom, can hold about 800 mL
-stretch receptors
micturition reflex
-stretch receptors in bladder
-parasympathetic stimulation (spine sends signal back causing contraction of muscle)
-internal urethral sphincter (can't control)
-external urethral sphincter (skeletal muscle, can control)
-you pee
-urine from bladder to outside
-lined with mucous membrane and urethral glands which secrete mucous
urinary incontinence
-loss of urine control
-may be temporary from and underlying medical condition
resorption (from-to)
-from tubes back to peritubular capillaries
secretion (from-to)
-peritubular capillaries into tubes
excretion (from-to)
-anything left in tubes is put into urine
excretion formula
-excretion = filter - reabsorption + secretion
filtration (from-to)
-from glomerulus to bowman's capsule
-driven by pressure
-collect filtrate
-filter 180 L per day
-anything you filter out goes into bowman's capsule (glomerular filtrate)
-goes out proximal convoluted tube
filtration membrane
1)pores don't allow formed elements (RBC, platelets, WBC) out of blood stream
2)basil lamina doesn't let large proteins through
3)podocytes wrap around and create slits, don't let medium molecultes out
glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure
-pressure of blood inside glomerular capillaries (55 mm/Hg)
-in favor of filtration
blood colod osmotic pressure
-proteins inside blood drawing water towards it (30 mm/Hg)
-against filtration
capsular hydrostatic prssure
-15 mm/Hg
-against filtration
net filtration pressure
-total pressure that promotes filtration
-NFP = GBHP - (CHP + BCOP) = 10 mm/Hg
high pressure system
-afferent is a large arteriol and is dialated: allows lots of blood into glomerular capillaries (raise pressure)
-efferent are small and restricted (blood is forced to stay in capillaries)
constrict afferent
-decr. pressure
-decr. GFR
-incr. reabsorption
dialate afferent
-incr. pressure
-incr. GFR
-decr. reabsorption
constrict efferent
-incr. pressure
-incr. GFR
-incr. reabsorption
*always constricted, keeps a gradient between tubes and peritubular capillaries (allow yourself to reabsorb more at a higher GFR)
dialate efferent
-decr. pressure
-decr. GFR
-decr. reabsorption
glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
-amount of filtrate filtered per unit of time
-directly proportional to pressure
-indirectly proportional to reabsorption
regulation of GFR
-adjust blood flow in and out of glomerular capillaries (constrict or dialate efferents or afferents)
-change surface area you are filtering off (mesengial cells :smooth muscle, constrict, decr. surface area, decr. GFR)
myogenic mechanism
-designed not to change GFR should blood pressure go up (excercise)
-incr. bp, incr. pressure of afferent arterioles, they constrict (doesn't affect system, just redirects blood to muscles that need it)
using JG apparatus to autoregulate
-macula densa senses osmolality and flow rate (using pressure receptors)
-if either one goes up, means you didn't reabsorb (adjust by constricting afferent arterioles, decr. GFR)
-if decr. osmolality, dialate afferent, incr. pressure, incr. GFR, decr. reabsorption, stimulate jg cells to secrete renin
neural regulation
-sympathetic NS
-vasoconstrict arterioles, incr. bp
-constrict afferent and efferent (to lesser degree): slight decr. GFR, slight incr. reabsorption
-overrides autoregulation
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
-released from heart due to high bp/bv
-inside kidney
-relaxes mesengial cells (incr. surface area, incr. GFR)
-inhibit Na/K pumps in collecting duct (Na stays in urine, water follows, bring bv down)
-inactive, made in liver
-renin from kidneys converts it to angiotensin I
angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
-converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II
hormonal regulation
-contracts efferent and afferent (to a lesser extent): incr. GFR
angiotensin II
-targets adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
-goal is to get GFR back to normal
-constrict efferent arterioles, reabsorption goes up, incr. GFR
-contracts mesengial cells
-stimulates collecting ducts to reabsorb Na+
-good if Na+ or bp is low
renin release by JG cells
-stimulation by macula densa (senses low osmolality in distal convoluted tubes, dialate afferent arterioles, release renin)
-reduce stretch in afferent arterioles (if bp was down)
-stimulation by angiotensin II (more you make, more renin you release)
-stimulation by sympathetic nerves
tubular reabsorption
-go from tubes back into peritubular capillaries
-proximal convoluted does most of the reabsorption
-loop of henle only does Na+ and H2O
-distal convoluted and collecting duct fine tune and regulate hormones
secondary active transport
-one substance goes down concentration gradient, 2nd substance is pulled against its gradient using energy from first using symporter
primary active transport
-2 substances going against gradients using ATP
-protein that can harness energy
-can only work so fast
-glucose is reabsorbed during secondary active transport. glucose levels are too high in blood, symporter only works so fast to reabsorb, so glucose ends up in urine
reabsorption of Na+
-high concentration outside cell
-diffuses inside cell (primary active transport)
-goes in symporter, pulls in glucose, vitamins, etc against gradient
Cl, fat soluble things, and water reabsorption
-Cl and other negativly charged stuff diffuses out following electrical gradient
-fat soluble things diffuse right through (absorb urea)
-water in tubes moves from dilute to concentrated area
labor of proximal convoluted tubule
-reabsorb most of filtered water and solutes
-major site of solute secretion
labor of loop of henle
-reabsorb large quantities of major ions and some water
-adjust osmolarity in blood
labor of distal convoluted tubule
-fine tuning for most substances (pH, water balance0
why we secrete
-reabsorb something we don't want, secrete it
-regulation (vitamins, Na+, K+, electrolytes)
-if you didn't filter something (too big) but you don't want it
-regulate pH (H+ and bicarb)
functions of electrolytes
-control osmosis of water between compartments
-help maintain acid base balance
-carry electrical current
-serve as cofactors for enzyme activity
water intoxication
-blodd becomes dilute, water into cells, cell swells
-need to drink something with electrolytes (gatorade)
-diffuse in with something else
-diffuse in and push something else out (ie. H+)
water diuresis
-increase urine flow but not solutes (don't have aquaporins) diabetes insipidus
osmotic diuresis
-increase urine flow as result of increase solute excretion (pulls water with it) diabetes melatus
coupling Na+ and H2O
-take Na+ out, lower osmolality, water follows
-can only follow if there are aquaporins
-in prox. conv. tubes, lots of pores, can absorb water
-in distal conv. tubes and collecting ducts, based on ADH (puts pores there)
countercurrent mechanism
-in loop of henle, sets up osmotic gradient in interstitial fluid
-collecting ducts then reab. or not reab. water based on ADH levels
-if reab. urine is concentrated, high ADH
-substances that slow renal reab. of water and cause diuresis (incr. urine flow rate)
-caffeine, alcohol, meds
measuring Na+
-indirectly measure by blood volume/pressure
-bv high, Na+ must be high: Na+ is hyperosmotic, pulls water out of cells, raise bv
sodium regulation via GFR
-lose Na+ and water, lose volume and pressure (sense by baroreceptors)
-decr. bp, decr. baroreceptors, symp NS fires more: contricts afferent arterioles, which decr. GFR, incr. reab. (all Na+ and water end up in blood, less is excreted) incr. bv/bp
-from heart
-occurs if Na+ levels or bp are high, targets collecting ducts to inhibit Na+ reab, incr. secretion
-sense decr. pressure in afferent arterioles, stimulated by symp.NS and decr.osmolality in distal conv. tubes
-makes angiotensin II which stimulates release of aldosterone
-stimulated by angiotensin, decr. bp, incr osmolality, dry mouth
potassium regulation
-aldosterone regulates K+ (targets Na+/K+ pump)
-secrete K+, reabsorb all of it, secrete based on needs of body
-K+ levels are high, release aldosterone, targets kidneys to secrete K+, put in urine

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