This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Diet and Exercise


undefined, object
copy deck
Energy Balance

Traditional view.

Stored energy = Energy in - Energy out

Stored energy: Glycogen, fat, body proteins

Energy in: Food alcohol

Energy out: Basal metabolic rate, thermic effect of food, activity (EX and NEAT) 


Changes in energy uptake in past few decades        

Availability of cheap, tasty, energy dense foods

Increased portions

Increased fat intake

Increased refined sugar intake

Decreased fruits, vegetables, and fiber 

Changes in energy expenditure  

Decreased daily living physical activity

Decreased leisure time physical activitity

Increased sedentary behavior


Disease associations with obesity

Hypertension, stroke, diabetes, cancer

Gallstones, skin disorders and menstrual irregularities

Definition of obesity

Excessive accumulation of body

Males >25% body fat, Females >30% body fat

By BMI >/= 25 overweight, >/= 30 obese

By waist circumfrence, Males > 102 cm  (40 in.),

Females > 88 cm (35") 

Is decreased fat intake percentage promising?
Not really, fat intake remains steady, it's just that Americans are now eating 100 to 300 more calories on average.
Android fat
Viseral, central fat that is located in the upper body, which more easily releases FFA with hormonal stimuli. High levels associated with risk of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlidemia. Typically seen in males.
Elevation of lipids in the bloodstream
Gynoid fat     
AKA gluteofemoral, lower body fat. More resistant to lipolytic stimuli. Generally seen in females, stimulated by estrogen and progesterone, especially during pregnancy.
Fat hypertrophy and hyperplasia
Increase in size of size of fat sells and number of fat cells, respectively, in obese individuals. In appears that fat cell size, but not number decreases during weight loss (more research needed). 
Thermic effect of food
The thermic effect of food, or TEF in shorthand, is the increment in energy expenditure above resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for storage and use. It is one of the components of metabolism.
Non-exercise thermogenesis. The energy used to heat the body which is not due to exercise.
Basal metabolic rate
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state. The release of energy in this state is sufficient only for the functioning of t
Fat Balance   

Alternate view from energy balance.

Stored fat = Fat in - fat out

Criticisms of energy balance

Energy balance does not account for changes in energy expenditure that come with changes in energy intake and body weight.

Individuals on a high-fat/high-refined carb diet can gain body fat without ingesting excess calories.

Energy balanc

Factors affecting food choice


Social factors, taste, emotion, nutrition, cost, convenience culture, habit 

Problems with dieting
The energy cost of physical activity decreases proportionally with body mass, but metabolism decreases at a greater proportion due to drops in LBM and RMR. This blunted metabolism makes the diet progressively less effective and slows further weight loss.
Ketogenic diets
Diets nearly devoid of carbs and contain 60-70% calories from fat in attempt to increase fat mobilization for energy by a reduction in insulin. This is supposed to create "ketones".
Criticism of ketogenic diets

Major concern is for increased risk of disease from long-term use of ketogenic diets. A

Athletes will be unable to try at high intensity without carb stoes. 

Amino acids from muscle will be used to try and maintain blood glucose, which

Important functions of carbohydrates 

Fuel for energy - especially during excercise

Protein sparing - avoid conversion of proteins into glucose for tissue maintenance, repair and growth and keep nitrogen balance.

Fuel for CNS/brain and other tissues



Deck Info