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BIO 7 - 9


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What is the importance of the enzyme phosphofructokinase?
Inhibits glycolysis if there's too much ATP or citraid.
Simulates glycolysis through AMP
What process forms the proton gradient in mitochondria?
ETC (Electron Transport Chain)
What is the purpose of the proton gradient?
Protons flow in ATP
Proton pump
Energy used to flow forms ATP
How many ATP are formed from the Krebs cycle using substrate level phosphorylation?
2 ATPs per glucose, 1 per cycle
What kind of molecules can easily cross the lipid bilayer?
Small unchanged molecules
The cristae of the mitochondria is impermeable to protons except where?
ATP synthesizing enzyme
When fermentation occurs, why is the energy in NADH lost?
Pumps electrons/hydrogens in pyrovate
Energy is lost
Dumps H
Creates waste
Name three products of glycolysis.
2 Pyruvate
What is the name of the molecule that enters the Krebs cycle? What is the name of the first molecule made in the Krebs cycle?
Actyl coA, citric acid
What part of aerobic respiration generates the most ATP?
Electron Transport and Occidative Phospholation
Which stages is Carbon dioxide produced?
Krebbs and the bridge
What would you find on either side of the middle lamella?
Between Primary Cell Walls
What is the fluid part of the fluid-mosaic model?
Phospho lipid bilayer
What is the difference between integral and peripheral proteins?
Integral and peripheral proteins
What is the significance of the evidence from the freeze fracture technique?
Integral proteins
What is the purpose of the glycolipids and glycoproteins on the surface of the cell membrane?
cell recognition
How come glucose but not sucrose could diffuse across a membrane?
Sucrose is dissacharide
Glucose is mono
Which organelle synthesizes enzymes?
-make proteins
If a dialysis bag is in an isotonic solution, what will happen to its mass?
If a dialysis bag is in a hypertonic solution, what will happen to its mass?
Lose mass
What is the function of the proton pump in cotransport?
Co-transport - sets up high radiant for protons to flow inward, pumps out H+
What is the contribution of Gorter and Grendel to Biology?
They discovered phospholipid bilayers
Two molecules thick!
How does the cytoskeleton attach to the cell membrane?
Attatches to an integral protein
What is the relationship of LDL receptors and hypercholersterolemia?
LDL binds to cell, making it lower, taking cholesterol out
What is the net gain of energy using fermentation?
Two ATPs
Does glycolysis require oxygen to be present?
Where are most of the enzymes located to do oxidative phosphorylation?
What is the ultimate electron acceptor in the oxidative phosphorylation? What molecule does it turn in to?
Oxygen, Water (H2O)
What are the products of animal fermentation?
lactic acid
What is the importance of the enzyme dehydrogenase?
Changes NAD+ to NADH
Name 3 things that mitochondria and chloroplasts have in common.
2 membranes
Have their own single circular chromosome
Have their own ribosomes
How are the following related: grana, thylakoid CF1.
These are in chloroplasts
Thylakoid = inner, can be in stacks
Granna = stacks
CF1 = similar to proton pump, multiple CF1s in each grannum
What kind of cells has membranous organelles and allows for compartmentalization of functions and the placement of enzymes.
What is the equivalent of a gap junction in plant cells?
They both allow for things to go from one cell to another
Which organelle besides the chloroplast secretes many polysaccharides?
Golgi Apparatus
Both secrete sugar
Which organelle helps to recycle the cell's organic material?
Where does cell respiration take place?
Which organelle is involved with storage diseases such as Tay-Sachs?
Which organelle contains enzymes that convert fats to sugar?
Which organelle contains cristae?
Do microfilaments or microtubules participate in the formation of the cell cleavage furrow?
The cytoskeleton is made mostly of ________?
Which organelle would make steroid hormones?
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Which organelle sorts out mixtures of substances and sends them to their proper destinations.
Golgi Apparatus
Which organelle assembles ribosomal precursors?
Which organelle contains hydrolytic enzymes?
What possesses a structure simular to a basal body?

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