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Psych 270 Exam 2


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Prodromal Phase of Schizophrenia
Obvious deterioration in functioning, change in personality with characteristics similar to schizotypal personality disorder, including peculiar behaviors and perceptual experiences
Active phase of Schizophrenia
symptoms such as hallucinatinos, delusions, and disorganized speech are present
Residual Phase of Schizophrenia
Signs and symptoms similar to that of the prodromal phase - positive symptoms may improve, but negative symptoms and impairment often continue
Positive (psychotic) symptoms
presence of abnormal functioning - e.g., hallucinations, delusions
Negative symptoms
absence of normal functioning - e.g., social withdrawal, lack of initiative
verbal communication problems and bizarre behavior
Sensory experiences not caused by external stimuli - perceptions of nothing (voice in silence)
Delusional beliefs
peculiar beliefs that are rigidly held despite their illogical and unreasonable nature - They can be grandiose, paranoid, or bizarre
Blunted affect
failure to exhibit signs of emotion - neg symp
inability to experience pleasure - neg symp
*reduced activity* - social withdrawal, isolation common - neg symp
Indecisiveness, uncertainty, and a loss of will power - neg symp
impoverished thinking and poverty of speech, along with thought blocking; patients have little to say, cannot maintain a train of thought, etc. - neg symp
Disorganized speech
saying things that don't make sense - disorg.
Loose associations
abruptly shifting topics - disorg.
irrelevant responses - disorg
saying things over and over - disorg
immobility and muscular rigidity, or excitement and overactivity - disorg
inappropriate affect
inconsistency between emotional state and behavior - disorg
Dementia Praecox
psychosis that end in intellectual deterioration with early onset (in adolescence)
Schizoaffective disorder
symptoms of schizophrenic disturbance overlap with a depressive or manic episode, but psychotic symptoms are present at some point without mood disorder symptoms
Delusional Disorder
preoccupation with nonbizarre delusions for at least one month
Brief psychotic disorder
exhibit psychotic symptoms for at least one day but no longer than one month, often following a markedly stressful event
the relative contribution of genes to a characteristic
Heritability ratio
= variance due to genetic factors/ (Total variance) variance = (variance due to genetic factors + variance due to environmental factors + variance due to the interaction of genes and environment)
Gene-environment correlation
a nonrandom association between inborn tendencies and environmental experience ..can be active or passive
state of physiological arousal defined by subjective states of feeling
observable behaviors related to emotions (e.g. facial expressions, pitch of voice)
sustained emotional response
Depressed mood
general term for mood involving sadness, despair
Clinical depression
a clinical syndrome: set of emotional + cognitive + behavioral + somatic symptoms .....clinical syndrome-symptoms such as depressed mood, fatigue, loss of energy, sleeping difficulties, appetite changes, cog & behav changes
An unpleasant mood (gloomy, dejected)
Beck's Depressive Triad
focusing on negative aspects of self, environment around them, and future
Psychomotor retardation
slowing down of motor responses - a behavioral symptom of depression
Major Depressive Disorder
the experience of at least one major depressive episode. At least two weeks in duration without any manic episodes (5 of 9 symptoms for at least 2 weeks, dysphoria and/or anhedonia, and additional symptoms of: eating, sleeping, psychomotor, energy, guilt/worthlessness, concentration/decisiveness, death)
Less severe symptoms, but predominantly depressed mood for at least two years. Does not involve impairment like MDD does
Bipolar I Disorder
Person has experienced at least one manic episode
Bipolar II Disorder
Person has not experienced a manic episode, but has experienced hypomanic episodes with MDEs
The experience of a less severe period of increased energy - generally shorter duration and weaker in intensity than full-blown manic episodes
Chronic but less severe mood swings. Lasts at least two years in which the person experiences numerous hypomanic episodes and numerous periods of depression BUT NO major depressive or manic episodes
Severe form of depression with symptoms including loss of pleasure, loss of interest, loss of appetite, early morning awakenings, excessive guilt. Pts tend to respond well to biological treatments
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Symptoms of reexperiencing a traumatic event, avoidance, and increased autonomic arousal or anxiety. - symptoms must last more than one month
Acute Stress Disorder
Occurs within the first 4 weeks after exposure to trauma and includes symptoms similar to PTSD and dissociative symptoms
Dissociative Disorders
Persistent, maladaptive disruptions in the combination of memory, consciousness, or identity
Somatoform Disorders
Unusual physical symptoms that occur in the absence of a known physical illness
Traumatic Stress
The experience of an event involving actual or threatened injury or death and the response of intense fear, helplessness, or horror in reaction to the event
avoiding stimuli associated with the trauma, including thoughts or feelings related to the event
Dissociative amnesia
**A dissociative symptom** - inability to recall important aspects of a traumatic experience
Degree to which evidence and rationale support interpretations and actions
Disorganized subtype of Schizo
characterized by disorganized speech, behavior, and inappropriate affect (all three must be present)
Undifferentiated subtype of Schizo
meets the criteria for schizophrenia but does not fit other subtypes or fits multiple subtypes (often exhibit hallucinations/delusions and disorganization)
Residual subtype of Schizo
patient who doesn't meet the criteria for active-phase but still exhibits negative symptoms
Lack of commitment usually associated with schizophrenia
hallucinations that occur while one is falling asleep
hallucinations that occur while one is waking up
misperceptions of something (whispers in wind)
Manic Episode
- Elevated or expansive mood for 1 week - 3 of 7 sxs: grandiosity, low sleep, talkative, flight or ideas, distractibility, high activity, risky behavior
Hypomanic Episode
- Same sxs as manic episode, but for 4 days - no marked impairment, hospitalization, psychotic sxs
normal participants
people with no history of mental disorder
patient controls
people who have some other form of mental disorder
case control design
comparison groups that are composed of people who do not have the disorder in question and another group "cases" that includes people who already meet the diagnostic criteria for a particular mental disorder
representative sample
a sample that accurately represents some larger group of people
convenience samples
groups of people who are easily recruited and studied
Longitudinal study
involves studying people repeatedly over time
cross-sectional study
people are studied at only one time point
prospective design
supposed causes are assessed in the present, and subjects are then followed longitudinally to see if the hypothesized effects develop over time - more effective but more expensive
retrospective study
researchers look backward in time either by asking people to recall past events, or by examining records from the past - less expensive, but it is of limited value because of distorted memories and limited records
retrospective reports
current recollections of past experiences
analogue studies
studying a condition that is similar to the clinical disorder in question. Focus on behaviors that resemble mental disorders - or isolated features of mental disorders - tat appear in the natural environment
sudden memories during which the trauma is replayed in images or thoughts
Conversion Disorder
psychological conflicts are converted into physical symptoms, often mimicking those found in neurological diseases or disorders (ie. hysterical blindness or paralysis, but may make no anatomical sense)
Somatization disorder
multiple somatic complaints (over time or simultaneously) in the absence of organic impairments - include pain, gastrointestinal, sexual and pseudoneurologic symptoms but patients may exhibit a lack of concern about the physical symptoms
persistent, intense, and disturbing fear or belief that one is suffering from a physical illness - lasting over six months
body dysmorphic disorder
preoccupation with an imagined defect in physical appearance - typically focuses on a facial feature (such as nose or mouth); may lead to repeated visits to a plastic surgeon
Malingering vs. Fictitious disorder
M) pretending to have a disorder to achieve a tangible benefit F) a made-up condition that is motivated by a desire to assume the sick role
primary gain
symptoms may sever the function of protecting the conscious mind by expressing the psychological conflict unconsciously
secondary gain
symptoms may help a patient to avoid work or responsibility or gain attention
cannot recognize faces, but prefer faces that should be familiar
implicit memory
changes in behavior apparently based on memory but without conscious remembering
a predisposition to a particular disease
adverse life events
Schizo Essay
Support: CR, Children of Schizo, Social Class Against: Expressed emotion predict relapses, patterns of brain dysfunction and structure
MDD Essay
Support: CR, rumative response predicts duration & severity - supports cog theory, aversive patterns of expression can induce episodes - stressful life events participate in onset Against: have not found linked gene, high cortisol not causal factor cuz some people suppress it
Bipolar Essay
Support: Heritability high, genetic markers found on chrom 18, aversive patterns of exprsesion and communication with family can induce recurrence of mania Against: Two people may react very differently to the same stress. Cortisol levels cannot be assumed for this cuz pepole with depression do show ability to suppress cortisol
PTSD Essay
Supporting: CR, pre-existing cog factors like expectations and prepardeness control risk. Social support after trauma influences development Against: high comorbidity with depression, traumatic experiences are common yet not everyone develops PTSD

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