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Psych Exam1


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Wilhelm Wundy
First Lab Introspection.. what is it?
observing and recording the nature of one's own perceptions, thoughts, and feelings
the analysis of mental processes
studying how the mind works to enable an organism to adapt to and function in its environment
Behaviorism believed that all behavior is the result of what?
conditioning and reinforcement
Watson is involved in what newer school?
What is the primary interest in Gestalt Psych?
Gestalt psych
believed that perceptual experiences depend on patterns formed by stimuli and on the organization of experiences
who is involved with psychoanalysis?
Psychoanalysis focuses on ...
the unconscious and free association
Persp. Biological
identifies behavior to Electrical and Chemical processes that occur within the Brain or Nervou system
Persp. Behavioral
how responses to stimuli (reinforcement and punishment) shape behavior. OBSERVABLE behavior
Persp. Cog
mental processes (perception, reasoning,memory,decision making,problemsolving)
Persp. psychoanalytic (who?)
Freud Behavior is based on UNCONSCIOUS processes (beliefs,desires, fears)
Persp. Subjectivist
perceived world, based on individual's perspective
4 things of scientific method
1. forming research questions 2. stating these questions as a hypothesis 3. testing the hypothesis 4. interpreting andpublicizing results
a statement of the problem or a statement that can be tested is called..
dependent variable
what the researcher is trying to measure
independent variable
the factor that is allowed to vary or the factor that the researcher is manipulating
categorical variable
confounding variables
factors other than the independent variable that could be effecting the outcome
Distinguish between Experimental and control groups
exp:receiving treatment Cont: don't experience treatment
random sample
each individ has an equal chance of being selected to participate
variables change in same direction ..
positive correlation
variables change in the opposite direction
negative correlation
measuring what they intend to measure
can we generalize the findings to a larger population
Name the 4 ethical constraints
1. confidentiality 2. full disclosure of purpose 3. respectfor an individual's freedom to participate 4. need to obtain informed consent
cell body
what do dendrites do?
receive neuralimpulses. also, transmit messages from other neurons to the cell body
tube that extends from the soma and transmits messages
junction at which two neuronsmeet
synaptic gap
gap between the terminal button on one neuron and the dendrites of another
chemical that transmits the impulse fromone neuron to another
myelin sheath
provides insulation and increases the speed of traveling messages or impulses
sensory neurons/receptors
transmit impulses received by receptors to the central nervous system. receptors: specialized cells in sense organs, muscle skin, and joints
motor neurons
carry outgoing messages from brain/spinal cord
neurons that receive signals from sensory neurons and send impulses to other interneurons or to motor neurons
synaptic vesicles contain what?
pre-synaptic neuron
neuron sneding signal
post-synaptic neuron
neuron receiving signal
excitatory effect
lead to depolarization of a receiving neuron -- action potential
inhibitory effect
makes inside of receiving neuron more negative (hyperpolarize
neurotransmitters are reabsorbed
Neurons in the brain and spinal cord
nerves connecting the brain and the spinal cordto other parts of the body
autonomic sysytem is split into :
name the 5 main structures of the central core
medulla cerebellum thalamus hypothalamus reticular formation
2 major parts of the limbic system
hippocampus, amygdala
what does the hippocampus do
important role in memory
what does the amygdala do?
impt rold in emotional behavior
what is the outer layer of the cerebrum?
cerebral cortex
the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum are connected by what?
the corpus callosum
the cerebral hemisphere is divided into what 4 diff lobes?
frontal parietal occipital temporal
what is the function of the primary motor area?
controls voluntary functions
what is the function of the primary somatosensory?
produces sensory experienceon the opposite side of the body, where heat , cold, touch, pain, andmovement are represented
left hemisphere controls
expressive language, logical activities, mathematical calculations
right hemisphere controls
simple language, spatial ability
define aphasia
language deficits caused by brain damage
where is the broca's area located?
left side of the frontal lobe
damage of Broca's area =?
expressive aphasia
where is the Wernicke's Area located?
left hemisphere in the temporal lobe
damage to the Wernicke's area =
receptive aphasia
what system controls hormones?
endocrine system
define hormones
chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands into the blood stream and transported to other parts of the body where they have specific effects
whata gland is located just below the hypothalamus?
pituitary gland
what are three types of developement?
physical/biological cognitive psychosocial/social emotional
4 stages of lifespan developement
infancy childhood adolescence adulthood
critical periods
time periods in an individs life when specific events need to occur if development is to proceed
sensitive periods
periods that are optimal for specific developments to occur
organized pattern of thought or behavior
person interprets new ideas or experiences
person changes existing schemes to fit new ideas or experiences
interplay between assimiltion and accomodation, resulting in developement
harmonious balance of a person's schemes and experiences with the environment
freud ID
present at birth, unconscious, driven by pleasure
freud EGO
rational, conscious, realistic problem-solver
morals, consists of sconscience and ego-ideal (internal set of standards of how one should behave
3 types of temperment
easy,difficult, and slow to warm
secure attatchment
healthy bond, good stuff
anxious-resistant attachment
insecure bond between child and caregiver. child shows anxiety before separation . resists comforting when parent returns
insecure bond, child rarely cries when separated, ignores caregiver when reunited
most insecurity between caregiver and child, when reunited, child exhibits confused and contradictory behavior
authritarian parents
high control/discipline high maturity demands low communication low nurturance and warmth
authoritative parents
high control/discipline high (all good stuff)
permissive parenting
permissive-indulgent permissive-indifferent
permissive indulgent
warm andresponsive no control not good communication few demands
permissive indifferent
emotionally uninvolved, avoid responsibilities in childrearing, inconsitent setting , not good discipline
absolute threshholds
the minimum magnitude of a stimulus that can be detected from no stimulus at all
how much a stimulus must be raised from a standard in order for a higher level to be determined.
the translation of energy into electrical signals (occurs via receptors)
light is reflected from an image to form an image on the ..?
list the 3 parts of the image forming system in the way they work
1. cornea - begins to form 2. lens - focuses light on retina 3. pupil - maintains imae quality
designed for seeing at night
designed for seeing in the day
visual acuity
ability to resovle details
color name
number of cycles per second at which the molecules move back and forth = our perception of pitch
difference between the peak and trough in a sound wave
our experience of the complexity of sound
name the three touch senses
pressure temperature pain
two types of pain
phasic / tonic
release of chemical substance in skin that stimulate high-threshhold receptors
selective attention
process by which we selectsome stimuli for further processing while ignoring other
what is the separation of objects?
figure- objectsof interest ground- region behind the figure
if the vertical difference between dots is reduced u will see columns
name 6 monocular cues
relative size (smaller objects farther away) interposition (overlapping object is closer) relative height perspective (paralell lines vanish) shading and shadows relative motion
associative agnosia
difficulty recognizing visually presented objects
inability to recognize faces
infants willlook at an pbject for a while but get bored
can an infant discriminate between two objects
Altered State of Consciousness
changes from an ordinary parrtern of mental functioning to a state that seems different to the person experiencing the change.
preconscious memory
constantly ignore. reject, and select incoming stimuli to focus onin our conscious awareness. certain memories can be brought into our conscious awareness
habituation of responses that initially require a lot of attention
under certain conditions some thoughts and actions became split off for the rest of consciousness and function outside of awareness
homeostatic sleep drive
a physiological process that strives to maintain the amount of sleep required for a stable level of daytime alertness
clock-dependent alerting process
arouses us at a particular time each day
an altered state of consciousness in which visual stories are constructed based on memories and current concerns, or on fantasies and images
achieving an altered state of consciousness by performing certain rituals and exercises
a willing and cooperative individual relinquishes some control over her behavior to a hypnotist and accepts some distortions of reality
hypnotic suggestions
posthypnotic responses posthypnotic amnesia positive hallucinations negative hallucinations
3 types of dependance
tolerance withdrawl compulsive use

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