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Microbiology Test 1


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What is the Primary Stain used in Gram staining?
Crystal Violet
What is the Counterstain used in Gram staining?
What decolorizes the Gram ( - ) bacteria?
How does the decolorizing agent work?
Washes out the stain through holes in the Gram ( - ) lipid bilayer
What is the Mordant in Gram staining?
Grams iodine
During the Primary Stain application, what bacterium is stained?
Both Gram ( - ) and Gram ( + )
What is the purpose of air drying?
Kills the bacteria
What is the purpose of heat fixing?
Adheres bacteria to slide
What is the function of Teichoic Acid?
Heat resistance for gram positive
Will a cell burst in a hypotonic solution? Why or why not?
It would swell but not burst (Osmotic Lysis)
What happens to bacteria in a hypertonic solution?
Crenate /Shrink (Plasmolysis)
What is an action that bacteria will take under unfavorable conditions as a survival mechanism?
Endospore formation
The cell types that lack a membrane bound nucleus are the _____.
The cells that have a true nucleus _____.
Bacteria that have flagella all around the cell are _____.
What organelle can be found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Antibiotics designed to disrupt protein synthesis will act on ____.
70S Ribosomes
Bacteria with a tuft of flagella on both ends is called ____.
The mode of action of Vancomycin is ________.
By inhibiting peptidoglycan.
The only organelle present in all organisms except viruses is the ______.
Alexander Flemming is credited with the discovery of ______.
What is a rod shaped bacteria?
What is a spiral shaped bacteria?
What is a round bacteria?
What is a chain like bacteria?
What is a cluster like bacteria?
What is a paired bacteria?
What is the science of classifying organisms?
What is the study of the evolutionary history of organisms?
Systematics or Phylogeny
What are the three domains?
Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya
What is a group of closely related organisms that breed among themselves?
Eukaryotic species
What is a population of cells with similar characteristics?
Prokaryotic species
What is a clone?
A population of cells derived from a single cell.
What is a strain?
Genetically different cells within a clone.
What is a viral species?
A population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche.
What do you call a neatly organized glycocalyx?
What is a glycocalyx that is unorganized and loose?
Slime layer
What are the parts of the flagella?
Filament, hook, basal body.
What is a bacteria with only one flagella?
What proteins make up flagella?
H antigens
What part allows attachment?
What part is used to transfer DNA?
What is peptidoglycan made of?
NAG and NAM, linked by polypeptides.
Which has more lipids? Gram (-) or Gram (+)?
Gram (+)
What does Penicillin do to a cell?
Inhibits peptide bridges in peptidoglycan.
What does lysozyme do to a cell?
Digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan.
What is a called when a membrane allows passage to some molecules?
Selective permeability
What is the movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration?
Simple diffusion
What is it called when a solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane?
Facilitative diffusion
What is the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from high water concentration to low water concentration?
What is osmotic pressure?
The pressure needed to stop the movement of water across a membrane.
How much of the cytoplasm is water?
What type of ribosomes do prokaryotic cells have?
What do inclusions do?
Act as energy reserves.
What resistance does a bacteria gain in endospore formation?
Desiccation, heat, chemicals.
What is sporulation?
Endospore formation
What is germination?
The return to vegetative state.

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