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AP exam 1


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cutting open
looking at surface markings, things you can see with your eyes
tissues, cells, things that are very small
study of how the body and it's parts function
atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism
making everything stay the same (like temperature control) and keeping things normal to enable function
process/change that needs homeostatic regulation
sensor that recognizes change in variable
processes the need for change and it will send out a response through an effector
causes a change based on a message from the control center
action the opposes the variation (ex: your temperature increases to decrease your body temperature OR when you lose blood, your body increases blood production
an exaggerated response or an exaggerated variable (ex: blood clotting)
Hooke in 1665
1. cells are the building block of life 2. cells come from other cells 3. cells are the smallest form of life 4. cells maintain homeostasis 5. cells can organize and coordinate with other cells to function as a unit
the study of cells
(body cells) DIPLOID which means there are 46 chromosomes
only sperm or oocytes, haploid and contain 23 chromosomes
everything inside the cell membrane except the nucleus
the fluid inside the cell
to separate the cell from surrounding fluid and determines what goes in and out
lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and cholesterol
synthesis of lipids and glycogen takes place at the
smooth ER
most of a cell's DNA is located in it's
the process by which molecules such as glucose are moved into cells along their concentration gradient with the help of membrane-bound carrier proteins is called
facilitated diffusion
the movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to and area of low concentration is an example of
most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the
the watery component of the cytoplasm is the
the control center for cellular operations is the
the components of ribosomes are formed within
"spikes" form on a blood cell when it is placed in a ___ solution
the cell membrane is primarily composed of
a phospholipid bilayer
the phosphate layer is_____, while the lipid later is _____
hydrophylic, hydrophobic
what is an integral protein?
a protein that cannot be removed from the membrane without damage being done
what is a peripheral protein?
a protein that can be easily separated from the membrane
what are the 2 main functions of anchoring proteins
attach to nearby structures and attach the membrane to the cytoskeleton
what to recognizer proteins do?
recognize abnormal cells
what do enzymes do at the membrane protein level
catalyze reacions in the fluid (make something happen that without it wouldn't be able to happen)
what do receptor proteins do?
change cell activity when receptor is activated
what do carrier proteins do?
transport materials across the membrane
what do channel proteins do?
integral proteins that allow specific material to pass through
what is a leak channel
a channel that is always open
what is a gated channel
a channel that is sometimes open, sometimes closed
glycocalyx is a membrane ____
membrane carbohydrates are found where in the cell?
the outer surface of the cell membrane
what are 3 functions of membrane carbohydrates?
protect the cell membrane, anchor the cell in place, act as receptors and identifiers (recognize OUR cells as OURS)
what is the function of cholesterol in the cell?
provides stability and keeps things where it should be for cell membrane
what does impermeable mean?
can't move across is EVER
what does freely permeable mean?
no restrictions, something can move without difficulty
what does selectively permeable mean?
permeable to some, not to others
getting through a selectively permeable membrane is based on _____
size, charge, and shape
what is a passive process?
the majority are this way; it means no energy is required by the cell
what is active process?
requires ATP to move
the net movement of materials from high to low concentrations until the concentration gradient is eliminated is called
when going through diffusion, undisturbed materials will reach
what are some factors that will effect the rate of diffusion?
size, temperature, distance, electrical forces
smaller molecules will dissolve ____ than larger ones
an increased temperature will _______ the rate of diffusion
a shorter distance will mean fast or slow rate of diffusion?
which ions will diffuse faster, positive or negative ones?
positive, because the inside of our cells are negative
osmosis only involves the movement of
water across a selectively permeable membrane
intracellular and extracellular fluids are solutions that contain:
a variety of dissolved materials
during osmosis, intracellular and extracellular fluids want to reach
during osmosis, the membrane is permeable to water but NOT the
what happens during osmosis
water passively diffuses from high concentrations (of water) to low concentrations (of water)
what is osmotic pressure
pulling pressure - the high the pressure, the more water moves toward it
during osmosis, the ____ doesn't need to be the same, but the ____ does
volume, concentration
what is hydrostatic pressure
the opposite of osmotic-it occurs through applied force
what is isotonic solution
intracellular solution concentration EQUALS the extracellular concentration
in an isotonic solution, how much movement is there?
none - each side is equal
what is a hypotonic solution
extracellular concentration is lower than inside the cell
if a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, what will happen to it?
it will fill with water and swell
what is a hypertonic solution
extracellular solution is greater than inside the cell - the cell shrinks
what is filtration
when hydrostatic pressure pushes fluid across the membrane
where does filtration often occur
capillary beds, kidneys
most proteins only carry ___ type of molecule/ion across the membrane
what are cotransport proteins?
2 types going in the same direction
what are countertransport proteins?
2 types going in opposite directions (ex: one going in, one going out)
what are the 2 types of carrier mediated transport?
facilitated diffusion and active transport
does active transport require energy?
during active transport, ion pumps in cells transport what? (4 possible things)
potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium ions
what does an exchange pump do?
moves 2 ions in opposite directions in during active transport
in a sodium-potassium exchange pump, there will always be ___ going to the cell and ___ going out
2 in, 3 out (to maintain negative charge in cell)
what is the cytoskeleton made of
microtubules, microfilaments, thick filaments and intermediate filaments
what do microvilli do
increase the surface area
where might you find a lot of microvilli
small intestine
what do cilia do
move fluids across the cell surface
what does a centriole do
serves as an anchor during mitosis
what cell organelle does a neuron NOT have
what do ribosomes do
translate mRNA and help produce proteins
what is the structure of a mitochondria
double-membrane bound organelle with a smooth outer layer and a maze-like inner layer
what does the rough ER do
modification and transport of proteins because ribosomes are attached
the golgi apparatus is a type of _____ tissue
what does the golgi apparatus do?
packages and delivers secretions, excretions and cell membrane renewal vesicles
this is a membrane bound sac that contains digestive enzymes
what does a lysosome do
breaks down and digest stuff like harmful bacteria
what does a peroxisome do
generates hydrogen peroxide and then helps to break it down into water and oxygen
what is the nucleus enclosed in
nuclear envelope
what organelle contains chromosomes
the dark spot inside the nucleus is the
what is the nucleolus responsible for
providing ribosomes and synthesizing RNA around DNA
what is endocytosis
bringing material into the cell
what is exocytosis
moving material out of the cell
receptor-mediated transport is a type of ____ transport
what is receptor-mediated transport?
receptors bind to ligands (targets) and the bound receptors and ligands cluster together. They fuse with lysosomes, and the lysosomes frees the ligands so they can enter the cytosol - receptors are specific for certain materials
what is pinocytosis?
"drinking cell" - brings in a bulk amount of fluid
what is phagocytosis?
bringing in a bulk amount of materials (solids)
what is the transmembrane potential?
the potential difference or potential energy (possibility of energy) - the positive ions really want to get into the cell
what are the 2 main stages of the cell life cycle
interphase and mitosis
what 2 things happen during interphase
replication of DNA and protein synthesis
what is interphase?
the non-dividing cell; the cell is growing and performing functions and at the end of interphase (right before it's ready to divide) it does DNA replication
what happens during DNA replication?
the DNA double helix pulls apart, nucleotides join the 2 parts to form 2 new templates
what does DNA give us
structural proteins and enzymes
what is protein synthesis?
a small section of DNA strand opens up to get a copy of a gene (mRNA) to take back to the cell. mRNA is decoded by the ribosomes and then make a protein
what is the basic idea of mitosis?
cell division - the cell divides into 2 identical daughter cells
what are the 4 stages of mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase
what is cytokinesis?
the splitting of the cell by making a cleavage furrow; this is complete when a nuclear membrane surrounds both new cells
when does cytokinesis appear?
anaphase to telophase
what happens during prophase?
nuclear envelope disappears; chromatin coils and become chromosomes - they move to their centromeres and spindle fibers extend between the pairs
what phase does the nuclear envelope disappear?
why does chromatin coil?
in order to protect itself
what happens in metaphase?
chromosomes line up with centromere at the cell equator
what happens during anaphase?
centromere breaks and chromosomes are pulled to oppose ends of the cell with 46 chromosomes on each side
what happens during telophase?
spind appareatus disappears; centrioles are at the nucleus, chromosomes uncoil, nucleoli reappears
the exact opposite of prophase is ____
at what part of the cell cycle is there 96 chromosomes for a brief moment?
what is the largest organ in the body?
the skin
what are the 2 layers of the skin
epidermis and the dermis
is the epidermis vascular or avascular?
avascular - no blood vessels
what does the epidermis rely on the dermis for?
nutrients and structure
what are the 4 cells founds in the epidermis?
keratinocyte, melanocyte, langerhans/dendridic, and merkel
what is the most abundant cell in the epidermis?
what does a keratinocyte do?
produces and fills with keratin which helps with structure
what is a keratinocytes life cycle
25-25 days
what does a melanoctye do?
produces melanin (pigment) and sends it into melanosomes which go into keratinocytes to give color
what does a dendridic cell do?
stimulate immune response to microorganisms and surface skin cancers
what does a merkel cell do?
found in hairless areas of the skin and have sensory receptors to light touch
what cells are in hairless areas of the body?
hairless areas of the skin like palms and soles
what does strata mean?
what is the deepest layer of the epidermis?
stratum basale
what is the most superficial layer of the epidermis?
stratum corneum
what are the 5 layers of the epidermis?
basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
how many layers is your thick skin?
how many layers is your thin skin?
what is the stratum basale?
made of basale cells (stem cells) when they divide, 1 goes up into the next layer - contain merkel cells and melanocytes
what is the stratum spinosum?
interconnected to desmosomes which are the spiny layer
what is the stratum granulosum?
last layer of living cells; keratin production increases and cells become thinner and flatter and dehydrate and die
what is the statum lucidum?
in the thick skin only - layer of cells that are flattened and filled with keratin
what is the stratum corneum?
75% thickness; pull off in sheets
how many cells thick is the basale?
how many cells thick is the spinosum?
how many cells thick is the granulosum?
how many cells thick is the corneum?
what does the papillary plexus do?
supply blood to the epidermis
what is cyanosis?
blue/grey tint caused by poorly oxygenated blood (dark red blood looks blue through the skin)
what is pallor?
reduced color in the skin because blood flow to an area has stopped
what is jaundice?
when the liver can't process bile so it gets released in to the skin
what does addison's disease cause?
An epidermal layer found only in the skin of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet is the _______
stratum lucidum
An albino individual lacks the ability to produce
The layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the
Sensible perspiration is produced by ________ glands.
merocrine sweat
The pale, crescent-shaped area at the base of a nail is called the
A thickened area of scar tissue that is covered by a shiny, smooth epidermal surface is called a(n) ________.
The layer of the skin that provides protection against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the
Accessory structures of the skin include:
nails, hair, multicellular exocrine glands
The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves closest to the surface of the skin is the ________ layer.
nail production occurs at the
nail root
what 3 things are found in the papillary layer?
dermal papillae, Meissner's corpuscles, epidermal ridges
where do cleavage lines run?
areas of stress
why is it important surgeons cut along cleavage lines?
the incision will heal faster and leave less scaring (ex: new c-section scars vs. old ones)
what is a flexure line?
area of extra skin that helps in areas of movement
where are flexure lines found?
anywhere going around a joint - knuckles, elbows, knees, etc.
what is a blister?
when the separation of the epidermis and dermis occurs, fluid fills between
if you get a blood blister, it means you've pinched what?
papillary plexus
what is dermititis?
inflammation of the skin
another word for striae is
stretch marks
how do you get striae?
results from torn dermis - when materials under the skin grow faster than the skin
wrinkles occur when we lose _____ in the skin
hives, diaper rash, and eczema are all examples of
true or false: the hypodermis layer is part of the skin
why is the subcutaneous/hypodermis layer important?
it provides stability for the skin and holds the subcutaneous fat (connects skin to muscle)
the brown, yellow-brown or black pigment that gives the skin color
do darker-skinned individuals have more melanocytes than light-skinned people?
NO - we have the same AMOUNT of melanocytes
what 3 things determine racial differences?
the size of melanosome, the type of pigment and where it enters the strata (light people=pigment is deeper, darker people=pigment is closer to the surface)
melanin is produced by:
after a melanocyte makes melanin, where does it go?
what effect does UV light have on skin?
it stimulates melanocytes to produce more melanin which leads to more color
what is carotene?
yellow to orange pigment and collects in the corneum
when your hemoglobin is oxygenated, it is what color?
bright red
what are the functions of the hair and hair follicles?
sensory, protection, filters
which layer of skin would you find the hair follicle opens up to?
what is vellus hair?
very fine, like peach fuzz
what is terminal hair?
heavy, deeply pigmented hair you would find on the head, pubic region and armpits
what is the avg. growth cycle for hair in the scalp?
2-5 years
what is a club hair?
a hair that has stopped growing
the portion of the hair follicle where cell divisions occur is the
the primary function of sensible perspiration is
the stratum corneum of the nail root, which extends over the exposed nail is called the
the 2 major components of the integumentary system are
cutaneous membrane and the accessory structures
too much exposure to UV light can do what
damage cell DNA
in what layer of the epidermis does cell division occur?
stratum germinativum
the 2 types of exocrine glands in the skin are
sebaceous and sweat glands
what determines if you get male pattern baldness?
what is alopecia?
when your hair goes from course to vellus
what determines our hair color?
the amount of melanin produced by the melanocytes in hair matrix
why does our hair color start to fade as we get older?
because pigment production in melanocytes starts to cease the older we get (ie, gray hair!)
your merocrine sweat glands can be found abundantly where?
palms, soles of feet, and forehead
what do are merocrine glands secrete?
99% water with some solutes in it
what are the solutes in sweat produced in the merocrine glands?
salt, antibodies, lactic acid, metabolic waste
When are the apocrine glands activated?
Where are the apocrine sweat glands located?
mostly in armpits and groin
What type of sweat does the apocrine sweat glands produce?
a sticky and cloudy secretion
What is the function of the apocrine sweat glands?
we're not really sure - it may be to create our own personal scent (similar to pheromones)
Where is a ceruminous gland?
your ear
what does a ceruminous gland combine with the sebaceous gland to produce?
cerumin - ear wax
a sebaceous gland produces
sebum - an oily secretion
where would you NOT find sebaceous glands and follicles?
palms and soles (thick skin)
what are the main functions of sebum? (4)
1-soften skin 2-prevents hair from being brittle 3-prevents water loss 4-bacteriocidal
Where do you find a lot of sebaceous glands and follicles?
head, face, back and chest (think of areas where you would likely find acne)
the nails are a modified version of what skin layer?
stratum corneum
the nail body lays on the
nail bed
the hard part of the nail that we feel is the
stratum corneum
the nail root makes what?
new stratum corneum
the 1/2 moon shape on the nail is called the
the nail cuticle is also known as the
the lunula is present because the corneum is not fully attached to the what?
nail root
What are the main functions of the integumentary system? (6)
1-protection 2-thermoregulation 3-cutaneous sensation 4-vitamin D synthesis 5-excretion 6-storage of lipids
how does vitamin D synthesis work?
vitamin D circulates in the blood, UV rays break it down and enables us to use calcium (this is why in 3rd-world areas with little sunlight kids have bone issues)
why are stem cells so important?
they cause regeneration
germinative cells do what?
replace lost epidermal cells
mesenchymal cells do what?
replace lost dermal cells
what are the 2 types of stem cells involved with skin regeneration?
germinative and mesenchymal
what are the 4 main stages of regeneration?
1-bleeding occurs 2-scab/clot forms 3-new skin starts to replace the scab/clot 4-new skin is present with no scab or clot
during the first stage of regeneration, mast cells do what?
initiate an immediate immune response to start cleanup
why is a scab important?
it serves as temporary protection and helps to stop blood flow
when a scab forms, what does the stratum germnativum do?
fills in to form new epidermis
having macrophages present during scab formation is important because
it helps to fight off pathogens that may have made their way into the skin
after injury, why does a scar look different than our previous skin?
because the collagen fibers didn't form exactly like the previous collagen fibers
After an injury, what does scar tissue NOT contain
sweat glands, hair follicles, nerve cells
scar tissue contains what
collagen fibers
an example of negative feedback is
when you give blood away, your body increases blood production OR thermoregulation
what is a cell?
the smallest living unit in the body that sustains life
these are long, slender extensions of the cell membrane
what cells don't have centrioles?
centrioles serve as an anchor during
these are made of globular proteins
this organelle is smooth on the outside but looks like a maze on the inside
this organelle is made of a set of tunnels of membrane that surround the nucleus and fill up the cell
this organelle looks like a block of swiss cheese
this organelle is a stack of flattened membranes and might look like a stack of pita bread
golgi apparatus
how do sweat glands help regulate body temperature?
neural and hormonal mechanisms decide how much we will sweat - the hotter our body temperature, the more we will sweat to help cool the skin

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