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Linguistics 3


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Fundamental design features
modularity rule-governed operations recursion non-finiteness variability
module-components, 4: phonology (sound), morphology (word structure), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning)
rule-governed operations
rules of language that organize elements into constituents
in which same rules operate more than once
languages can be infinite in two different ways: sentence length, sentence numbers. As a result, one must learn elements and rules, not memorize
dialects; arise from geography, age, gender, race, education, socio-economic standing
linguistic code
can refer to dialect or register; people are evaluated based on it (but no lc is inherently better)
communicative competence
denotes what form is most appropriate at any given context; the ability to communicate meaning
linguistic competence
grammatical competence plus communicative competence; what all speakers possess
grammatical competence
the ability to produce and understand an infinite number of sentences; much knowledge is tacit
What is language?
A finite system of elements and rules that make it possible for speakers to construct an infinite number of sentences for communicative purposes
property of individual sound segments
concerned with systems; how sounds pattern together
the vocal tract
lungs, larynx, filters
the lungs
source of air; pulmonary egressive airstream (air coming out from the lungs)
laryngeal states
2: voiced and voiceless; states of the larynx during speech
folds are loose and close together, so air passing from lungs causes vibrations; some consonants and all vowels
taut and far, no vibrations; some consonants, no vowels
filters (3) to modify air flow
the pharynx, the oral cavity, the nasal cavity
oral cavity
contains the organs of articulation (alveolar ridge, velum, palate, tongue, lips, uvula)
active articulators
move; the tongue (tip, body and blade), lower lip, vocal folds
passive articulators
don't move; upper lip, alveolar ridge, palate, vellum
manners of articulation (5)
stop, fricative, affricative, nasal, approximant
have a degree of obstruction; stops, fricatives, affricatives
more acoustic energy; usually vowels (nasal, approximant)
a complete closure at point in vocal tract followed by a rapid release. EX: pie, by//tie, die//kye, guy
partial closure, not complete; air passing causes friction. EX: sue, zoo//assure, azure//face, vase
STOP+FRICATIVE; a single sound, complete closure with a delayed release. EX: chug, jug
produced by lowering the velum so air passes through nasal rather than oral cavity; requires a simultaneous complete oral closure. EX: ban, bang, bam
oral stops (stops)
the velum is raised; air exists through the oral cavity. EX: tab, tag, tad
nasal stops (nasal)
velum is lowered; air exits through nasal cavity. EX: tan, tam, tang
made with partial closure within oral tract; air passes through with NO turbulence
approximant subclass; law (lateral) and raw (rhotic)
approximant subclass; you, wine
In PHONETICS, we often refer to the...
...PASSIVE ARTICULATORS (moved against). There are EIGHT places of articulation: bilabial, labiodental, dental, alveolar, palato-alveolar, palatal, velar, laryngeal
in PHONOLOGY, we often refer to the...
...ACTIVE ARTICULATORS, in which there are four places of articulation: labial, coronal, dorsal, laryngeal

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