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Nutrition Ch. 9


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What are some risks of obesity?
More likely to die from diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease. -Flat feet, abdominal hernias, gallbladder disease, gout, high blood lipids, kidney stones, liver malfunction, respiratory probs, sleep disturb, sleep apnea, some cancers, varicose veins, arthritis.
Problems with underweight?
-More likely to die from cancers and wasting diseases. -No nutrient stores.
What is the energy balance equation and its relationship to body weight.
Energy stores= Energy taken in munis energy spent on metabolism and muscle activities.
BMI equation and limits of healthy.
BMI= (weight X 703) divided by height (inches squared) Underweight: <18.5 Normal: 18.5-25 Overweight: 25-29.9 Obese: > 30
Name 2 tests that determine a person's body fatness.
Skinfold test (anthropometry),: which is the measurement of thickness of a fold of skin on back of arm, below shoulder blade using caliper. and Bone density test: which measures body weight compared with volume. Can be determined using underwater weighing or air displacement methods. Also Radiographic techniques: using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.
What is the ideal body fat percentage for men and women?
Men: 12-20 % body fat Women: 20-30% body fat.
Define metabolic fitness.
=Normal... -Blood Pressure -Blood lipids -Blood glucose/insulin levels.
What are the 3 components of energy expenditure?
1. 50-65% basal metabolism: the sum total of all involuntary activities that are necessary to sustain life (circulation, resp, nerves) 2. 25-50% Physical activity: energy spent on voluntary activities. The heavier body part and longer moved=more cals. 3. 5-10% Thermic effect of food: body's speeded-up metabolism in response to having eaten a meal, also called diet induced thermogenesis. Metabolism increase for up to five hours following meals.
What factors affect basal metabolic rate and how.
Increase: lean muscle mass, height, pregnancy, fever, stress, temp, thryoxine. Decrease: Malnutrition, fasting/starvation, age.
Psychological DESIRE to eat, learned motivation and a positive sensation.
Name 6 signals for food intake regulation.
Appetite, Ghrenlin, Hunger, Leptin, Satiation, Satiety.
A hormone released by stomach-signals hypoth to stimulate eating.
Physiologic NEED to eat, a drive to obtain food.
An appetite suppressing hormone produced in fat cells that conveys info about body fatness to brain.
Perception of fullness that builds throughout meal.
Lingering fullness after meal and inhibits eating until next mealtime. Determines length between meals.
Describe difs in higher vs lower satiety.
Higher: Foods high in fiber, protein, and water. Low: Foods high in white flour, sugar, fat.
Name some personal factors that influence dietary intake.
Hunger, Nutrition, food preferences, nutrition attitudes, life experiences, sensory perceptions.
Name some cultural factors that influence dietary intakes.
Cultural values/norms. Food store access, Storage facilities, Prep time/cooking skills, media, family norms, seasonal food availability, economic resources, food quality, food prices.
What is the difference between gradual weight loss and rapid weight loss.
Gradual: exercises, restricts calories and consumes a balanced diet. This forces body to use stored fat for energy. Rapid: fasting, loss of water weight, not a balanced diet. Not sufficient protein or carbs.
What are the results of fasting?
Ketone bodies levels rise in blood. Used to feed brain when there's a carb shortage.
Define successful weight loss.
-Slow rate -< 2 lbs/week -weight is not regained -Varied diet -Doesn't lead to disordered eating
Describe the "Health at every size" paradigm.
-Eat healthy and pleasurably -Regular, fun phy. activity -develop pos. self image -discard stereotypes.
Describe disordered eating.
-Restrained eating -Chronic dieting -Compulsive overeating -overly concerned or preoccupied with food, cals, fat, weight.... obsession/addiction.
Anorexia Nervosa
-Refusal to maintain healthy body weight -intense fear of gaining weight -distorted body image -amenorrehea-no period -extreme measures/restriction of eating.
Bulimia Nervosa
RECURRENT EPISODES OF BINGE EATING: -eating in discrete amts of time (2 hours.) -Secretive eating -Lack of control over eating. PURGING OR RESTRICTING TO PREVENT WEIGHT GAIN: -Self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxative, diuretics, enemas, excessive exercise.
Female Athlete Triad?
EATING DISORDER -restrictive eating: inadequate energy and nutrient intake, over-exercising, weight loss, lack of body fat. AMENORRHEA -diminished hormones OSTEOPOROSIS -amenorrhea can lead to this too. Female athlete triad has eating disorders at the top-leads to the other two.
Name 6 causes of eating disorders.
-health/fitness taken to extreme. -Dieting gone awry -pres/expectations -abuse from others -modeling parents behav -personal characterisitics: perfectionist, desire for control, feeling responsible for everything.
Name 6 consequences of eating disorders.
-physical -distorted body image -can't think clearly -feel unworthy -highest mortality rate of all mental illnesses -treatment can help, especially the earlier it starts.
Name 4 things you can do to help someone with an eating disorder.
-Offer love and acceptance of their worth. -Advice about eating is useless. -encourage him/her to get professional help -accompany him/her to get started if necessary.
Name 3 major treatments of eating disorders.
1. Multidisciplinary. -physician -nutritionist -nurse -psych-gist/psych-trist 2. Major goal -normalize eating patterns and feel comfortable with changes. 3. Primary issue is psychological and not nutritional.

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