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Science Exam 07-08


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How long is the baby carried in the stomach?
9 months/36 weeks
If all the digestion is finished in the first 30 centimeters of the small intestine, why is there so much more small intestine?
To store the nutrients it absorbs.
Besides digestion, what other role does hydrochloric acid perform in the stomach?
Kills bacteria.
Which structure is most crucial in getting food from the table to your cells?
Small Intestines.
Saliva acts to:
Lubricate food and breakdown carbohydrates.
What does the liver digest? A) Protein B) Sugars C) Carbohydrates D) Fats
D) fats
What does the pancreas digest? A) Protein B) Fats C) Carbohydrates D) Water
C) Carbohydrates
The primary role of the large intestine is to...
Remove water
one gram of fat produces how many calories?
Why does the large intestines remove so much water from the stool?
So it can store it in the body in case you get dehydrated.
Label the parts of the brain.
(See handout)
Where are antibodies produced?
The lungs.
Where are RBC\'s produced?
In bone marrow.
what is the functional unit of the kidney?
The Nephrons.
What are the organs involved in the Excretory System?
Kidneys Large Intestine Liver Lungs Skin
What does the liver do?
Excretory - Gets rid of RBC\'s, poisons, toxins, old tissues, bacteria, and proteins (amino acids). Digestive - Produces bile which breaks down fat into small particles.
What is waste in the Excretory System?
bacteria, CO2, old RBC\'s, old tissues, poisons, proteins(amino acids), salts, Soluble waste, toxins, undigested solid waste, urea(by-product of protein), water, and water vapor.
What are the three lines of defense in the Immune System?
1) Barriers 2) Inflammatory response 3) Immune Response
What triggers the inflammatory response?
What triggers the Immune Response?
Chemicals released from the pathogen and cells.
What are the enzymes produced in the digestive system?
Amylase Pepsin Trypsin Lipase
What are fat soluble vitamins?
Dissolve in fat Stored in fatty tissues Ex. Vitamins A, D, E, and K.
What are the 6 nutrients?
1) Carbohydrates 2) Fat 3) Minerals 4) Proteins 5) Vitamins 6) Water
What are water soluble vitamins?
Dissolve in water Not stored in body Ex. Vitamins B & C
What does the gall bladder do?
Stores and secretes bile.
What happens in a capillary, vein, and artery?
Artery-ventricles force blood from the heart and cause the artery to pulse. Every pulse is a beat of the heart. Capillary-Oxygen and glucose pass through Vein-carry deoxygenated blood by 1) moving skeletal muscle, 2) expansion of lungs
Label the endocrine glands.
(See handout)
Name diseases of the heart, kidney, and nervous system.
Heart-Atherosclerosis (plaque build-up in vessels). Kidney-Nephritis Nervous-Autism
What is an ultrasound?
An ultrasound allows you to find out if the fetus is a male or a female by sound waves.
What are the number of chromosomes in a sperm, egg, and a zygote?
sperm-23 egg-23 zygote-46
What are the male and female sex hormones?
Male-testosterone Female-Estrogen and Progesterone.
What do the small and large intestines do?
Small-most important organ for digestion and absorption. Large-contains good bacteria that feeds on waste. Makes vitamin K and absorbs water.
What is the cycle of an egg being fertilized?
(see handout)
What is the cycle of an egg not being fertilized(period)?
(see handout)
Which endocrine gland controls other endocrine glands? a) adrenal b) ovary c) thalamus d) hypothalamus
D) Hypothalamus
What are the two main functions of the menstrual cycle?
Ovulation and preparation for implantation.
What characteristic is NOT produced by testosterone? A) Deep voice B)Aggresion C) Mestrustion D) Facial hair
C) Menstruation
The level of _______ drops during menopause.
Pheromones are...
external hormones
Which is NOT true of the endocrine system? A) uses electrical signals to send messages B) Produces hormones C) Is made up of glands D) Regulates certain body activities
A) Uses electrical signals to send messages.
Sperm are produced in the...
eggs are produced in the...
The fertilized egg implants in the...
The egg usually meets the sperm when it is in the...
fallopian tubes.
Sperm are released from the man\'s body into the...
The ------ connects to the ovaries to the uterus.
fallopian tubes
The ------ connects the vagina to the fallopian tubes.
The number of eggs released per menstrual cycle is...
The number of days per menstrual cycle is...
The female has ---- Ovary(ies)
the male body has______ urethra or urethras
The structure that connects the baby\'s circulatory system to the uterine wall is called the...
The structure that surrounds and protects the baby in the utero is the...
amniotic sac
The structure that remains attached to the baby several days after birh is called...
the umbilical chord.
What 2 things naturally stop the menstrual cycle?
1) menopause 2) pregnacy
What are the 3 stages of birth?
1)Labor-major uterine contraction 2) Delivery stage- fetus head own to the cervix, travels through the birth canal 3) After birth- placenta delivery!
How do you get fraternal twins?
When there are 2 eggs and 2 sperm that meet.
sperm leave the male body through the ...
another name for the womb is the...
the release of an egg from the ovary is called...
Name a complication of birth from the mother.
Breech birth-born legs first.
What does, \"my water has broken\" mean?
The amniotic fluid in the womb has drained. This means the baby will be born soon.
Why are the testicles kept in the scrotum, outside the body?
To keep the temperature about 2-3 degrees cooler in order to produce sperm.
What is another name for the birth canal?
The part of the brain that controls balance is the...
All your thinking takes place in your...
The space between one neuron and the next is called...
a synapse.
A(An)__________ is an automatic response to a stimulus.
The basic unit of structure and function an the nervous system is the...
The Endocrine system produces chemical messages called...
What connect sensory neurons to motor neurons?
Inter neurons.
The parathyroids regulate the level of____ in the blood.
In a normal body, ehat effect does insulin have on a body\'s blood sugar level?
Helps lower blood sugar in the body.
What is normal blood sugar?
In which organ is insulin produced? What part of the organ?
In the beta cells in the islets of langherans in the pancreas.
What is hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia?
Hypo-low blood sugar Hyper-High blood sugar.
What is a hormone? Name 2.
A hormone is released by a ductless gland , which goes straight into the blood stream and works on target cells. 1) Insulin 2) Glucagon
What causes Hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes?
By eating unhealthy foods, not excercising, and not giving yourself insulin.
Name 7 Endocrine glands.
1) Hypothalamus 2) Pituitary 3) Adrenal 4) Testes 5) Ovaries 6) Thymus 7) Thyroid
Why is a ductless gland unique?
Because the hormones go directly into the blood.
What 3 factors can contribute to getting type 2 diabetes?
1) Obesity 2) Unhealthy eating habits 3) Not enough excercise.
What 3 things can help manage diabetes?
1) Excercise 2) Healthy weight 3) eating healthily
List 2 things that can cause a person with type 1 diabetes to be hypoglycemic.
1) Not eating anything 2) Giving yourself too much insulin.
Which organ has ducts and ductless glands?
Explain negative feedback.
Negative is when a hormone such as estrogen reaches a certain level in the blood, the endocrine system sends a message to the Ovaries to stop the production of estrogen. When the hormone is first released, itgoes into the blood stream quickly. It gradually and slowly stops producing it.
label the endocrine glands in the diagram.
(see handout)
What is the difference between T and B Cells?
t cells mark invaders(antigen) with another protein. B Cells recognize the markers and destroy the invader. T Cells are T lymphocytes, and B Cells are B Lymphocytes.
Explain the difference between active and passive immunity.
Active immunity happens when the body make it\'s own antibodies in response to an anitgen. Ex. If you get a vaccine for chicken pox, your body makes antibodies against the chicken pox antigen. If you get this virus again, antibodies that help fight this virus, are ready in the blood stream to fight the pathogen. Passive immunity happens when antibodies that have been made in another body, are introduced into the body. Ex. a newborn is a bundle of passive immunity. It is born with all of the antibodies that the mother had in her blood.
What is a pathogen? Name 4 different groups of pathogens and an example of each that cause disease.
A Pathogen is an organism that causes disease. 1) Virus-AIDS 2) Bacteria-Bacillus 3) Parasite-Hookworm 4) Fungi-Athlete\'s foot.
What is a communicable disease and what is a noncommunicable disease?
Communicable-a disease that\'s spread from one living thing to nother. Noncommunicable-a disease that cannot be spread by one living thing to another. Can be caused by genes, chemicals, or unhealthy diet.
What is a carcinogen?
Any substance or radaiation involved in cancer.
What is chemotherapy and why is it used?
The use of chemicals to fight off cancer cells. Used To try to fight cancer.
What is an antigen?
A protein or chemical which is foreign to the body.
What is an antibody?
A protein produced by an animal in response to an antigen.
how does AIDS invade the body and destroy the immune system?
AIDS allows the body to be infected by many organisms which cause disease. Death from AIDS is usually from other infections rather than AIDS itself.
Which is not removed from the blood by the kidney? A) Urea B) Salt C) Amino Acids D) Water
C) Amino Acids
The functional unit of the kidney is the...
Water must be reabsorbed into the blood from the Nephron because...
you can become dehydrated.
What does the kidney filter from the blood?
Water soluble waste.
WHich is NOT removed from the blood by the liver/ A) Hemoglobin B) Urea C) Bacteria D) Excess Amino Acids
B) Urea
The tube that takes urine away from the bladder is...
the Urethra
The tube that fills the bladder is called the...
The skin shares excretory functions with the...
The kidney cannot filter excess amino acids or hemoglobin because...
these wastes are too large.
Which excretory organ has no other organ in the body that preforms the same functions?
Large intestines.
Label the nephron diagram.
(see handout)
What is Excretion?
The system of which the body gets rid of soluble wastes, water, urea, proteins,etc. that you don\'t need anymore and turns it into solid waste.
What is Urea?
A by-product of protein.
What is a ureter?
The tube that connects the kidneys to the bladder.
What does the nephron do?
Filters and reabsorbs blood that passes through it.
What is the urethra?
The short tube that allows urine to leave the bladder and the body.
What do the kidneys do?
Filters blood that passes through and passes it on to the bladder through the ureters.
What are the three functions of the digestive system?
1) Breaks down food into molecules that the body can use. 2) Molecules are absorbed into the blood stream and carried through the body. 3) Eliminates wastes.
What is the gastro-enteric reflex?
When you eat food, it triggers your intestines to move your bowels.
Name 2 types of teeth and how teeth help with digestion.
1) Canines 2) Insisors They are the start of breaking down food mechanically.
What is the purpose of eating proteins?
Tissue growth, and the repairing and making of tissues. Chemical reaction of cells Source of energy.
What are 2 types of fat, how do they differ, and what foods contain them?
1) Saturated fat-margarine, solid at room temp. 2) Unsaturated fat-Corn, liquid at room temp.
What are omega 3 fatty acids, and why are they important?
They give you energy.
Name 3 carbohydrates and 2 foods you would find each of them.
1) Simple-candy bars and soda. 2) Complex-Pasta and bread. 3) Cellulose-celery
What are essential and non essential amino acids?
essential-must come from food. Non essential-your body makes.
Name 3 foods that contain protein.
1) Peanut butter 2) meat 3) Whole wheat bread.
What is food called when it enters the esophagus and the small intestine?
Esophagus-bolus Small intestines-chyme
What is the process by which food moves downward through the digestive system?
Draw and label the organs of the digestive system. Name the chemicals produced throughout the system.
(see handout) (if u arent Madison, you cant hav the handout, sry!)
What organs contribute to digestion without touching the food?
liver gall bladder pancreas small intestine
Describe the physical appearence of the small intestine and how it helps to do its job.
it is wavy and has villi, which are finger-like projections. It absorbs nutrients from the food and feeds it to the blood stream.
Name 4 scientific names of poop!
1)Stool 2) Manure 3) Feces 4) Bowel movement

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