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BIOLOGY chapter 3 2


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what is at the core of every organism's interaction with the environment?
its need for energy to power life's processes.
what source of energy do organisms use that dont use the sun's energy?
they rely on the energy stored in inorganic chemical compounds.
what are autotrophs?
they are producers that use photosynthesis to make its own plants.
what do autotrophs do during photosynthesis?
they use light energy to power the chemical reactions that turn c02 and water into oxygen and carbs
what is the main producer of land?
what is the main producer of the upper layers of the ocean?
what is the main producer of tidal flats and salt marshes?
what is chemosynthesis?
when organisms use energy to produce carbs.
where do bacteria that carry out chemosynthesis live?
in volcanic vents on the deep-ocean floor and hot springs in yellowstone.
heterotrophs are also called...
plant and animal remains and other dead matter are collecitvely called...
what are herbivores?
get energy by only eating plants
what are carnivores?
heterotroph that eats animals
what are omnivores?
eats both plants and animals
feeds on plants and animal remains and other dead matter
breaks down organic matter
how does energy flow through an ecosystem?
in one direction from the sun to producers then to consumers.
food chain is..
where you transfer energy by eating or being eaten
food web
network of complex interactions created by relationships among organisms
what does a food web link together?
all the foodchains in an ecosystem
what is a trophic level?
step in a food chain
in a food web, what organisms make up the first trophic level?
what does a consumer in a food chain depend on for energy?
the tropic level before it
what is an ecological pyramid?
a diagram that shows relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level.
why is it that only part of the energy stored in one trophic level is passed onto the next level?
because organisms use much of the energy that they consume for life processes
what are the four elements that make up over 95 percent of the body in most organisms?
oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon
how is the movement of matter through the biosphere different from the flow of energy?
while energy flows one way through the biosphere, matter is recycled both within and between ecosystems.
matter moves thruogh an ecosystem in..
biogeochemical cycles
what do biogeochemical cycles connect?
they connect chemical, biological, and chemical aspects of the biosphere.
water can enter the atmosphere by evaporating from the leaves of plants in the process of..
what three processes are involved in the water cycle?
precipitation, evaporation, and runoff.
what are nutrients?
chemical substances that an organism needs to survive
what are three nutrient cycles that play important roles in the biosphere?
carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous
why is carbon important to living systems?
it forms your bones, rocks, and part of the atmosphere and keeps plants alive.
in what process do plants use carbon dioxide?
photosynthesis, respiration
why do all organisms require nitrogen?
because without nitrogen, you couldnt make aminio acids
geochemical process
releases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere by volcanoes
some biological procsses are..
photosynthesis, repiration, decomposition
what is the main reservoir of nitrogen in the biosphere?
what is nitrogen fixation?
process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
what is denitrification?
break down of nitrates back into nitrogen gas
what role does denitrification play in the nitrogen cycle?
it releases nitrogen back into the atmosphere
why is phosphorus essential to living things?
it makes DNA and RNA
what is the primary productivity of an ecosystem?
the rate at which organic matter producers make.
if a nutrient is in short supply in an ecosystem, how will it affect an organism?
limits organisms growth

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