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First Aid 2


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What is Self Aid?
Emergency treatment one applies to oneself
Name some items that you might use as a splint from your military equipment
• Bayonet
• Rifle
• Entrenching tool
• Tent poles and stakes
• Web belt
What is the quickest way to splint a broken leg?
Tie the broken leg securely to the unbroken leg
How many pressure points, which can be used to control bleeding with fingers, thumbs or hands are there on the human body?
What is the object of first aid?
To stop bleeding, overcome shock, relieve pain and prevent infection
What FM covers first aid for soldiers?
FM 4-25.11
What is First Aid?
It is the first care given to casualties before treatment by medical personnel can be made available
What is the unique feature of type "O" blood?
It is a universal donor
When would you not remove a casualties clothing to expose a wound?
If in a chemical environment or if the clothing is stuck to the wound
What soldiers are most likely to suffer heat injuries?
Soldiers not accustomed to the heat, overweight soldiers, prior heat casualties, and soldiers already dehydrated due to alcohol use, diarrhea, or lack of water (insufficient use of)
How high should an injured limb be elevated above the heart to control bleeding?
2 to 4 inches
What are the 4 lifesaving steps? (The ABC's of medical treatment)
1. Open the airway and restore breathing
2. Stop the bleeding
3. Dress and bandage the wounds to prevent infection
4. Prevent shock
When applying splint, where should the bandages be tied?
The bandages should be tied with knots against the splint
Whose first aid dressing should be used on a casualty?
Their own field dressing
How should the ends of an unimproved pressure dressing be tied?
In a non-slip knot directly over the wound site
What is manual pressure?
Place hand on dressing and exert firm pressure for 5 to 10 minutes
Should a casualty be given water to drink?
He should not eat or drink
Why should you dress and bandage the wound as soon as possible?
To protect the wound from further contamination of germs, and also to control the bleeding
What should you do to indicate that a casualty has received a tourniquet?
Mark his or her forehead with a T and if possible, note the time of the application of the tourniquet
Should you ever remove or loosen a tourniquet?
No, only qualified medical personnel can do that
How can you prevent athlete's foot?
Keep your feet clean, use foot powder and change socks daily
Where is a tourniquet applied?
Around a limb, between the injury and the heart, 2 to 4 inches above the wound and never placed directly on a joint
Name 3 categories of heat injuries
1. Heat cramps
2. Heat exhaustion
3. Heat stroke
What are the signs and symptoms of heat cramps?
Muscle cramps of the abdomen, legs or arms
What is the treatment for heat cramps?
Move to shade, then loosen clothing and give cool water
What are the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion?
• Headache
• Excessive sweating
• Weakness
• Dizziness
• Nausea
• Muscle cramps
• Pale moist skin
• Mental confusion
What would the treatment be for heat exhaustion?
Move to a cool area and loosen clothing, have the individual drink at least one canteen full of cool water, elevate legs and monitor their condition
If a casualty were suspected of having a neck/spinal injury or severe head trauma, which method would you use for opening an airway?
The jaw thrust technique, because in most cases it can be done without extending the neck
What are signs and symptoms of heat stroke?
• Casualty stops sweating
• Skin is dry and hot
• Fast pulse
• Headache
• Dizziness
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Mental confusion
What is the treatment for heat stroke?
Immerse in coldest water available or remove clothing and wet entire body while fanning, transport the individual to the nearest medical facility
What are two basic types of fractures?
1. Open (compound)
2. Closed (simple)
What are some signs of a fracture?
Deformity, pain at the site, discoloration
With an open fracture, what should you do first?
Stop the bleeding
What is the basic proven principle in splinting fractures?
"Splint them where they lie
How tight should tourniquet be?
Tightened until the bright red bleeding has stopped.
What does the term Hemorrhage mean?
Heavy bleeding
What are the three types of bleeding?
1. Arterial- Blood is bright red and will spurt with each heart beat
2. Venous- Blood is dark red and flows in a steady stream
3. Capillary- Blood oozes from the wound
Name 4 common points for checking pulse
1. Carotid- The side of the neck
2. Femoral- The groin
3. Radial- The wrist
4. Posterial Tibial- Ankle
What are some signs/symptoms of shock?
• Clammy skin (cool, pale and damp)
• Restlessness and nervousness
• Thirst
• Loss of blood
• Confusion
• Fast breathing
• Nausea or vomiting
• Blotched or bluish skin (especially around the mouth and lips)
• Often perspires freely
• May pass out.
What is the treatment for shock?
“PELCRN” (Pronounced Pell-Crin)
1. Position the casualty on their back
2. Elevate the Legs
3. Loosen clothing at neck waist or wherever it is binding
4. Climatize (prevent too hot or too cold)
5. Reassure (keep the casualty calm)
6. Notify medical personnel (Help, Get a medic!!)
What is a heat injury?
A loss of water and salt, loss of sweat while personnel work in the heat, a general dehydration of the body
What is the greatest preventive measure for disease?
How do you stop bleeding?
• Apply a field dressing
• Manual pressure
• Elevate the limb
• Apply a pressure dressing
• Digital Pressure
• Apply a tourniquet
What is CPR?
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is used to restore a heart beat
When can measures taken to restore breathing in an individual be discontinued?
• When a doctor tells you to stop
• When others relieve you
• When you cannot physically continue
• When the casualty starts to breath on his own
What is AIDS?
AIDS is the end stage of the HIV infection. At this point, the virus has attacked and weakened a person's immune system
Name two types of rescue breathing
1. Mouth to mouth
2. Backpressure arm-lift method (Used in an NBC Environment when protective clothing may make it impossible to use the “mouth to mouth” method)
When would you use the backpressure arm-lift method of rescue breathing?
During a gas and biological attack because both of you can and will remain masked
What do the letters AIDS stand for?
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
When should a casualty not be placed in the shock position?
When the casualty has a:
• Head injury
• Abdominal wound
• Fractured (unsplinted) leg
How long is direct manual pressure applied to control bleeding?
5 to 10 minutes
What should you do prior to leaving an unconscious casualty?
Turn their head to the side to prevent them from choking on their own vomit
When should a tourniquet be used to stop bleeding?
As a last resort when everything else has failed or when an arm or leg has been severed off
What does COLD stand for?
It is a key word in cold weather protection, it stands for Keep it CLEAN, Avoid OVERHEATING, Wear it LOOSE and in layers and Keep it DRY
What are the 8 steps in evaluating a casualty?
Check for:
1. Responsiveness
2. Breathing
3. Pulse
4. Bleeding
5. Shock
6. Fractures
7. Burns
8. Possible concussions (head injuries)
What is the first indication of frostbite?
Skin becomes numb and white particles/patches form on it
What do you do to treat frostbite?
Remove clothing from the affected area, warm with warm water or body heat, dress the area and seek additional medical help
When should an airtight dressing be applied to a sucking chest wound?
As the individual breathes out
How should you position a casualty with an open abdominal wound?
On his back with his knees up to relieve abdominal pressure
What do you do with exposed abdominal organs?
Wrap them in dry clean material and place on top of the abdomen (never try to put them back in)
How do you take the Carotid pulse?
Place the first two fingers of your hand beside the casualties Adams' apple
In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the two-man methods?
1. Two-Man Support Carry
2. Two-Man Arms Carry
3. Two-Man Fore-and Aft-Carry
4. Four-Hand Seat Carry
5. Two-Hand Seat Carry
In reference to carrying a casualty, what are the one-man methods?
1. Fireman's carry
2. Supporting carry
3. Arms Carry
4. Saddleback carry
5. Pack-strap carry
6. Pistol belt carry
7. Pistol belt drag
8. Neck drag
9. LBE Carry Using Bearers LBE
10. LBE Carry Using CasualtyÂ’s LBE
11. Cradle Drop Drag
Should you put any medication or cream on a burn?
Name the four types of burns
1. Thermal
2. Electrical
3. Chemical
4. Laser
What is the primary objective in the treatment of burns?
Lessen or prevent shock and infection
What are the three categories used in medical evacuation?
1. Urgent- within 2 hours
2. Priority- within 4 hours
3. Routine- within 24 hours
What is the first aid procedure for a white phosphorous casualty?
Smother the flame by submerging the affected area in water or pack with mud. Then remove the particles by brushing or picking them out
What is the first step in the first aid of a burn victim?
Remove the casualty from the source of the burn
What are the 2 prescribed methods for opening an airway?
1. The jaw thrust
2. Head tilt/chin lift methods
What is the major cause of tooth decay and gum disease?
Dental plaque
What are the 9 mild symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?
1. Unexplained runny nose
2. Unexplained headache
3. Sudden drooling
4. Difficulty seeing (dimness of vision and miosis)
5. Tightness in the chest or difficulty in breathing
6. Localized sweating and muscular twitching in the area of contaminated skin
7. Stomach cramps
8. Nausea
9. Tachycardia followed by bradycardia (Tachycardia is an abnormally rapid heartbeat wth a heart rate of over 100 beats per minute. Bradycardia is a slow heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute)
What are the 11 severe symptoms of nerve agent poisoning?
1. Strange or confused behavior.
2. Wheezing, dyspnea (difficulty in breathing), and coughing.
3. Severely pinpointed pupils.
4. Red eyes with tearing.
5. Vomiting.
6. Severe muscular twitching and general weakness.
7. Involuntary urination and defecation.
8. Convulsions.
9. Unconsciousness.
10. Respiratory failure.
11. Bradycardia.

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