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Scott Gardner TCC Nursing Q1F04 Unit Five


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Describe Conjunctiva
A delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball. The conjuctive is clear and colorless except when blood vessels are dilated (appearance of blood shot eyes)
Describe Sclera
The tough, white, outer coat of the eyeball.
Describe Lacrimal ducts
Tear ducts. Drain aqueous humor fluid from eye to lacrimal sac - then draining through the nasolacrimal ducts that eventually carries it into the bloodstream.
Describe Ptosis
Drooping, sagging, prolapsed, or falling eye (lid). An abnormal drooping of the lid over the pupil - it is caused by edema or impairment of the third cranial nerve (oculomotor).
Describe Extraocular movements
Six small muscles guide the movement of each eye. Both eyes move parallel to each other in each of the six directions of gaze. Extraocular movements would be abnormal and outside of the normal field of vision. (Potter 700)
Describe the Six Cardinal fields
Lateral rectus (Abducens), Superior rectus (oculomotor), Inferior oblique (oculomotor), Inferior rectus (oculomotor), superior oblique (trochlear) (see Potter pg 700, diagram 32-12)
Describe Snellen
The Snellen chart assesses visual acuity - itÂ’s the standard eye chart.
Describe PERRLA
Pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation. Tested by pupillary reflexes (to light and accommodation) should be tested in a dimly lit room. As the client looks straight ahead, the nurse bringss a penlight from side to side directing light into the pupil. The pupils should quickly constrict.
Describe Strabismus
Abnormal deviation of the eye. A failure of the eyes to look in the same direction because of weakness of a muscle controlling the position of one eye. (Medical Dictionary)
Describe Lymph nodes
Small bean-shaped organs located throughout the lymphatic system. The lymph nodes store special cells that can trap cancer cells or bacteria that are traveling through the body in lymph. Also called lymph glands. (Potter 714, diagram 32.31 shows how to assess lymph nodes)
Describe Nasal flaring:
Intermittent outward movement of the nostrils with each inspiratory effort; indicates an increase in the work of breathing.
Describe Mucous membranes:
The lubricated inner lining of the mouth, nasal passages, vagina and urethra, any membrane or lining which contains mucous secreting glands. (Medical Dictionary)
Describe Sinuses:
Air filled cavities. Examples are the ethmoids, maxillary, frontal and sphenoid sinuses. Examination of the sinuses involves palpation. In cases of allergies or infection, the interior of the sinuses become inflamed and swollen.(Potter 709 explains how to palpate sinuses.)
Describe Hard & soft palate
The bony part of the roof of the mouth. The hard palate is the front of the palate and is in front of the soft palate. The fixed portion, or palate proper, supported by the maxillary and palatine bones, is called the hard palate to distinguish it from the membranous and muscular curtain which separates the cavity of the mouth from the pharynx and is called the soft palate (velum). (Potter 712 diagram 32.27-29 shows how to assess hard and soft palate).
Describe Tonsils
A collection of lymphoid tissue covered by mucous membranes located in several different areas on either side of the throat.
Describe Uvula
The central tag-like structure hanging down from the edge of the soft palate (potter 712)
Describe Buccal mucosa
Mucous membrane lining the inner cheek. (Potter pg 711 diagram 32.16 shows how to assess buccal mucosa).
Describe Tongue
An organ situated in the floor of the mouth and connected with the hyoid arch.
Describe Gag reflex:
Contact of a foreign body with the mucous membrane of the fauces* causes retching or gagging.

*The constricted opening leading from the oral cavity to the oropharynx
Describe Otoscope
While not used in our assessments

Instrument used to visually examine the ear. (Potter 705)
Describe Opthalmoscope
While not used in our assessments it is an Instrument used for visual examination of the eye. It is used to inspect the fundus which includes the retina, choroid, optic nerve disc, macula densa, fovea centralis and retinal vessels.
Describe Hearing acuity
Often the nurse can tell whether the client has a hearing loss from a response to conversation. The three types of hearing loss are conduction, sensorineural and mixed. Example of causes of conduction loss: swelling of the auditory canal or tears in the tympanic membrane. Sensorineural loss involves the inner ear, auditory nerve or hearing center of the brain. A mixed loss involves a combination of conduction and sensorineural loss. A tuning fork of 256-512 Hz can be used to test hearing loss. (Potter 707) - Tuning Fork Test diagram on Potter 708.
Describe Visual Acuity
A test of clarity of vision - to see small details. The patient reads a chart that contains black letters of gradually decreasing size. The chart is placed at a distance of 20 ft. Viscual acuity is expressed as a ration, such as 20/20. The first number is the distance the patient is standing from the chart. The second number is the distance at which a person with normal vision could have read the same line of the chart. The larger the denmominator, the poorer the clientÂ’s visual acuity. Ex: a value of 20/40 means that the client, standing 20 feet away, can read a line that a person with normal vision can read from 40 feet away. The nurse records visual acuity as sc (without correction) or cc (with correction). (potter 697)
Describe Photophobia
An abnormal visual intolerance for light. (Medical dictionary)
Describe Nystagmus
An involuntary rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyeball, which may be horizontal, vertical, rotatory or mixed.
Describe Accommodation
The normal adjustment of the eye for seeing objects at various distances. The lens is made thinner or fatter by the ciliary body to bring an object into focus on the retina.
Describe Vertigo
Sensation of irregular or shirling motion either of oneself or of external objects. Vertigo can result from disease of the inner ear or in the nerve that carries messages from the semicircular canals to the brain. Equilibrium and balance are affected, and nausea may occur as well.
Describe Epistaxis
Nosebleed - hemorrhage from the nose.
Describe Thyroid gland
A butterfly-shaped endocrine gland in the neck that is found on both sides of the trachea (windpipe). It secretes the hormone thyroxine which controls the rate of metabolism. (Potter 715 diagram 32.34 shows how to assess the thyroid gland).
Describe Right and Left Hypochondriac Regions
Flank the epigastric region laterally.
Describe Right and Left Lumbar Regions:
Lie lateral to the umbilical region (loins).
Describe Right and Left Iliac, or Inguinal Regions:
Located lateral to the hypogastric region (superior part of hipbone)
Describe Hypogastric (pubic) region
Located inferior to the umbilical region.
Describe Epigastric Region
Located superior to the umbilical region. (Above the belly)
Describe Umbilical region:
The centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus (navel).
Describe the sequence of the GI exam and the reason for this.
Sequence: Inspection, Auscultation, Percussion, Palpation. The reason for this order is to listen to the bowel movements before moving things around by palpation. (JulieÂ’s lecture)
Describe LLQ
½ descending colon, sigmoid colon, ½ urinary bladder, small intestines
Describe LUQ
majority of stomach, ½ diaphragm, ½ transverse colon, ½ descending colon, small intestines.
Describe RLQ
½ ascending colon, Appendix, small intestines, ½ urinary bladder
Describe RUQ
Majority of Liver, ½ ascending colon, ½ transverse colon, right 1/3 stomach, Gallbladder, small intestines, ½ diaphragm.
Describe Umbilicus
“Belly Button”. Point at which the umbilical cord separated from infant.
Describe Hernia
Protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it. Most common are hiatal (upper part of the stomach protrudes upward through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm) and inguinal hernia (a small loop of bowel protrudes through a weak place in the lower abdominal mucsle wall). (Medical Dictionary)
Describe Flatus
Gas expelled through the anus. (Medical Dictionary)
Describe Melena
Dark, tarry stools; feces containing blood. (Medical Dictionary)

Black tarry feces caused by the digestion of blood in the gastrointestinal tract.(Tabers Online)
Describe Pulsations
A throb or rhythmical beat. (Medical Dictionary)

The rhythmic beat, as of the heart and blood vessels; a throbbing.(Tabers Online)
Describe Light palpation
Pressing-in to palpate internal structures - ½ inch.
(Julie Lecture Notes)
Describe Rectum
Last section of the colon. Connecting the colon with the anus.
(Medical Dictionary)

The lower part of the large intestine, about 5 in. (12.7 cm) long, between the sigmoid colon and the anal canal.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Anus
Opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
(Medical Dictionary)

The outlet of the rectum lying in the fold between the buttocks.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Bowel sounds
Sounds heard during normal peristalsis - food being digested and moved along the alimentary canal.
Describe Peristaltic waves
The wormlike movement by which the alimentary canal propel their contents. It consists of a wave of contraction passing along the tube for variable distances. (Medical Dictionary)
Describe Feces
Solid wastes - stools. (Medical Dictionary)

Body waste such as food residue, bacteria, epithelium, and mucus, discharged from the bowels by way of the anus.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Ascites
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. This condition, previously called dropsy, occurs when fluid seeps out of the bloodstream, and collects in the peritoneal cavity. (Medical Dictionary)
Describe Alopecia
Absence of hair from areas where it normally grows. (Medical Dictionary)
Describe Ecchymosis
Ecchymoses (pleural) are bluish-black marks on the skin. Bruises. The are caused by hemorrhages into the skin from injury or spontaneous leaking of blood from vessels. (Medical Dictionary)
Describe Texture
The way a lesion would feel - for example: like fish scales (psoriasis).

The organization of a tissue or structure.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Wheal
A more or less round and temporary elevation of the skin, white in the center with a pale-red periphery, accompanied by itching.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Bulla
Bullae (plural) are large fluid filled blisters. (Medical Dictionary)

A large blister or skin vesicle filled with fluid; a bleb.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Pustule
Skin lesion. Circumscribed elevation of skin similar to vesicle but filled with pus, varies in size. (Acne, staphylococcal infection) (Potter 692)

1. A circumscribed area of pathologically altered tissue.
2. An injury or wound.
3. A single infected patch in a skin disease.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Tumor
Skin lesion. Solid mass that may extend deep through subcutaneous tissue, larger than 1-2 cm (e.g. epithelioma). (Potter 692).

1. A swelling or enlargement; one of the four classic signs of inflammation.
2. An abnormal mass.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Nodule
Skin lesion. Elevated solid mass, deeper and firmer than papule. (e.g. wart) (Potter 692).

1. A small node.
2. A small cluster of cells.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Cerumen
A waxy substance secreted by the external ear; also called ear wax.

Dry and white in Asian and Native American populations
Describe Pharynx
The cavity at the back of the mouth. It is cone shaped and has an average length of 76mm and is lined with mucous membrane. The pharynx opens into the esophagus at the lower end. (Potter pg 710 diagram 32.18 - shows how to assess mouth and pharynx).

The passageway for air from the nasal cavity to the larynx and for food from the mouth to the esophagus.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Pinna
The auricle; outer flap of the ear.

1. The auricle or projected part of the external ear.
2. A feather, fin, wing, or similar appendage.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Trachea
The windpipe. A fibrocartilaginous tube lined with mucous membrane passing from the larynx to the bronchi. (Potter 716). The trachea can be directly palpated and is normally located in the midline of the neck.
Perform a complete assessment of the Integumentary system, including descriptions of lesions.
Potter 689 for the complete integumentary system assessment.
What can be determined by the Integumentary Assessment?
Assessment of the skin can reveal a variety of conditions, including changes in oxygenation, circulation, nutrition, local tissue damage, and hydration. (Potter 689 diagram 32.9 lists the steps for skin assessment).
Describe Turgor
Is the skinÂ’s elasticity, which can be diminished by edema or dehydration. Normally the skin loses elasticity with age.
(Potter 691 - picture of how to perform turgor test diagram 32.7)
Describe Cyanosis
Bluish discoloration of the skin, best observed in the nail beds, lips, palpebral conjunctivae, and palms. Cyanosis is due to an increased amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin (associated with hypoxia).
(Potter 690).

A blue, gray, slate, or dark purple discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes caused by deoxygenated or reduced hemoglobin in the blood.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Pallor
Decrease in color. Cause is reduced amount of oxyhemoglobin - anemia (Potter 689)
Describe Jaundice
Yellow-orange discoloration. The best site to inspect for jaundice is the clientÂ’s sclera. The discoloration is due to increased deposits of bilirubin in tissues. (Potter 690)

A condition marked by yellow staining of body tissues and fluids, as a result of excessive levels of bilirubin in the bloodstream. Jaundice is not usually visible until the total bilirubin level rises above 3 mg/dl.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Edema
Areas of the skin become swollen from a buildup of fluid in the tissues. For the client with dependent edema caused by poor venous return, typical sites of edema are the feet, ankles, and sacrum.
(Potter 691).
Describe Capillary refill
Assessment of pinching off blood supply to the tip of the fingers or toes then releasing the pressure - capillary refill is demonstrated by the rapid influx of blood to the area. A slow return would be considered a diminshed capillary refill.
Describe Pigmentation
Abnormally increased coloration by melanin. Usually a tan-brown color due to sun damage, pregnancy or any area with increase amount of melanin. (Potter 689)
Describe Hyperemia
Redness in color due to increased visibility of oxyhemoglobin caused by dilation or increased blood flow. (Potter 689)

1. Congestion; an unusual amount of blood in a part.
2. A form of macula; red areas on the skin that disappear on pressure.
3. In physical therapy, an increase in the quantity of blood flowing through any part of the body, shown by redness of the skin caused by the application of heat.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Clubbed nails
Change in angle between nail and nail base (eventually larger than 180 degrees). Nail bed softening with nail flattening, often enlargement of fingertips. Causes: chronic lack of oxygen, heart or pulmonary disease. (Potter 697 fig. 32.11)
Describe Macules
Skin lesion. Flat, nonpalpable change in skin color, smaller than 1 cm (e.g. freckle, petechia). (Potter 692)

A flat spot on the skin whose color may be lighter or darker than the surrounding skin.
(Tabers Online)
Describe petechiae
1. Small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots on the skin that appear in patients with platelet deficiencies (thrombocytopenias) and in many febrile illnesses.
2. Red spots from the bite of a flea.
Describe Papules
Skin lesion. Palpable, circumscribed, solid elevation in the skin, smaller than 0.5 cm (e.g. elevated nevus -mole). (Potter 692)

A small bump or pimple, typically larger than a grain of salt but smaller than a peppercorn, that rises above the surface of the neighboring skin.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Vesicles
Skin lesion. Circumscribed elevation of skin (filled with serous fluid, smaller than 0.5 cm. (E.g. herpes simplex, chickenpox)
(Potter 692).
Describe Mongolian spots
A benign bluish or bruised appearing birthmark that is usually located on the lower back or buttocks. More common in dark skinned races and may persist for months to years.
(Medical Dictionary)

One of the blue or mulberry-colored spots usually located in the sacral region.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Scar
A mark in the skin remaining after the injury has healed. A normal scar is called a cicatrix. (Medical Dictionary)

A mark left in the skin or an internal organ by the healing of a wound, sore, or injury because of replacement by connective tissue of the injured tissue.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Striae
Stretch marks on the skin with a silvery-white hue. Often the result of stretching the skin in pregnancy. (Medical Dictionary)
Describe Ulcer
Skin lesion. Deep loss of skin surface that may extend to dermis and frequently bleeds and scars; varies in size (e.g. venous stasis ulcer). (Potter 692).

A lesion of the skin or mucous membranes marked by inflammation, necrosis, and sloughing of damaged tissues.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Lesions
A lesion is an area of damaged tissue, caused by disease or trauma. (Medical Dictionary)
Describe Fissure
A groove or crack-like sore.
(Medical Dictionary)

1. A groove, natural division, cleft, slit, or deep furrow in the brain, liver, spinal cord, and other organs.
2. An ulcer or cracklike sore.
3. A break in the enamel of a tooth.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Contraception
The prevention of conception. They include abstinence, OTC spermicidal products, creams, jellies, foams and sponges, condoms.
Those requiring a Health Care Provider include Hormonal contraception (oral pills, IM Injection, Sub-Dermal Implant, Trans-Dermal skin patch, IUDÂ’s, diaphragm, cervical cap and sterilization.
Potter 526/528
Describe Sexual response cycle
Three phases. Desire, Arousal and Orgasm. Male and female responses are similar.
(Potter 525)
Describe STDÂ’s
Any disease that may be acquired as a result of sexual intercourse or other intimate contact with an infected individual. A more-inclusive term than “venereal disease,” STDs include disease caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, and ectoparasites
Potter 526
Describe Infertility
Inability to achieve pregnancy during a year or more of unprotected intercourse. Causes of primary infertility in women include ovulatory failure, anatomical anomalies of the uterus, Turner's syndrome*, and eating disorders, among many others.

*A congenital endocrine disorder caused by failure of the ovaries to respond to pituitary hormone (gonadotropin) stimulation.
Define Sexual Abuse
Fondling, rape, sexual assault, or sexual molestation. The abuser may be a male or female adult or child. The victim may be of the same sex as the abuser or of the opposite sex.
Describe the components of sexual assessment
-Examination of female breast and genitalia, offering BSE instruction.
-Teaching Kegal exercises
-Teach TSE and helping men become familiar with their scrotums to help identify growths.
-Instruct both Men and Women on STDÂ’s
Potter 533
Describe the concept of the stages of sexual development.
- Infancy and early childhood. (Gender Identity)
- School Age Years
-Puberty/Adolescence (Dramatic Physical and Emotional Changes)
-Young Adulthood (Sexual Exploration Continues)
- Middle Adulthood (As Children Leave Home)
-Older Adulthood.

Potter 524
Describe Scrotum
The pouch found in most male mammals that contains the testicles and part of the spermatic cord. Constituent parts of the scrotum are skin; a network of nonstriated muscular fibers called dartos; cremasteric, spermatic, and infundibuliform (The membranous layer investing the spermatic cord) fasciae; cremasteric muscle; and tunica vaginalis (The serous membrane surrounding the front and sides of the testicle)
Describe Testicle
A technique that enables a man to detect changes in the size and shape of his testicles and evaluate any tenderness.
Each testicle is examined separately and in comparison with the other. The best time to perform the test is just after a warm bath or shower, when the scrotal tissue is more nearly relaxed.

The man places his thumbs on the anterior surface of the testicle, supporting it with the index and middle fingers of both hands. Each testicle is gently rolled between the fingers and thumbs and carefully felt for lumps, hardness, or thickening, esp. as compared with the other testicle. The epididymis is a soft, slightly tender, tubelike body behind the testicle.

Abnormal findings should be reported immediately to a health care professional.
Describe Epididymis
A small oblong organ resting on and beside the posterior surface of a testis, consisting of a convoluted tube 13 to 20 ft (3.97 to 6.1 m) long, enveloped in the tunica vaginalis, ending in the ductus deferens.
(Tabers Online)
Spermatic Cord
The cord by which the testis is connected to the abdominal inguinal ring. It surrounds the ductus deferens, blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves supplying the testis and epididymis. These are enclosed in the cremasteric fascia, which forms an investing sheath.
Describe Nipple
The erectile protuberance at the tip of each breast from which the iactiferous ducts discharge.

The nipple projects from the center of the more heavily pigmented areola; both the nipple and the areola contain small sebaceous glands (Montgomery's glands), which secrete a protective, oily substance
Describe Axillary Tail of Spence
An immarinary tail that extends from the upper outer quadrant of the brest up into the axilla.
Describe Lymph Glands
In the breast there are:
Infraclavicular group
Lateral group
Central Group
Anterior group

In the inguinal Area there are:
Superior inguinal nodes
inferior inguinal nodes.
(Potter 735/738)
Describe Testicular Assessment
TESTICLE- Potter 752
1. Look for swelling or lumps of the scrotum in the mirror.
2. With both hands, place the index and middle fingers under the testicles and the thumb on top.
3. Roll the testicle looking for lumps, thickening, or a change in consistency (Hardening)
4. Find the cordlike structure on the top and back of the testicle. This epididymis is not a lump, but a cord. Feel for small pea-sided lumps on the front and side of the testicle. Painless, but Abnormal.
5. Call physician with any Irreg.
Describe BSE
BREAST – Potter 736
1. Stand before mirror. Inspect looking for discharge, puckering, dimpling or scaling
2. Claps hands behind head and press hands forward. Chest muscles should tighten
3. Press hands to hips bend forward, pulling shoulders and elbows forward.
4. In the shower if necessary, raise one arm and use other hand to examine breast. Press inward with circles from the outer breast inward toward the nipple Pay special attention to the area under the armpit between the breast. Feel for a lump or mass.
5. Squeeze nipple looking for discharge. Repeat for other side.
6. Lie on back with towel under on side and repeat circular examination of breast then repeat on other side.
Describe Prostate Gland
A gland, consisting of a median lobe and two lateral lobes, that surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra in the male. It is partly muscular and partly glandular, with ducts opening into the prostatic portion of the urethra. About 2 × 4 × 3 cm, and weighing about 20 g, it is enclosed in a fibrous capsule containing smooth muscle fibers in its inner layer. Muscle fibers also separate the glandular tissue and encircle the urethra. The gland secretes a thin, opalescent, slightly alkaline fluid that forms part of the seminal fluid.
Describe Meatus
Meatus urinarius External opening of the urethra.
(Tabers Online)
Describe Glans penis
The bulbous end of the penis
Describe Perineum
The structures occupying the pelvic outlet and constituting the pelvic floor. 2. The external region between the vulva and anus in a female or between the scrotum and anus in a male. It is made up of skin, muscle, and fasciae. The muscles of the perineum are the anterior portion of the intact levator ani muscle, the transverse perineal muscle, and the pubococcygeus muscle
Describe Dysmenorrhea
Pain in association with menstruation. One of the most frequent gynecological disorders, it is classified as primary or secondary. An estimated 50% of menstruating women experience this disorder, and about 10% of these are incapacitated for several days each period.
This disorder is the greatest single cause of absence from school and work among menstrual-age women. In the U.S., this illness causes the loss of an estimated 140,000,000 work hours each year.
Describe Spermatic cord
The cord by which the testis is connected to the abdominal inguinal ring. It surrounds the ductus deferens, blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves supplying the testis and epididymis. These are enclosed in the cremasteric fascia, which forms an investing sheath.
Describe Foreskin
The prepuce, the loose skin at and covering the end of the penis or clitoris like a hood.
Excision of the prepuce constitutes circumcision.
Smegma praeputii is secreted by Tyson's* glands and collects under the foreskin.

*One of the modified sebaceous glands located on the neck of the penis and the inner surface of the prepuce.
The reproductive gland in a male vertebrate, the source of spermatozoa and the androgens, normally occurring paired in an external scrotum in humans and certain other mammals.
Describe Penis
The male organ of copulation and, in mammals, of urination. The penis is composed mainly of erectile tissue arranged in three columns, the whole being covered with skin. The two lateral columns are the corpora cavernosa penis. The third or median column, known as the corpus pongiosum, contains the urethra. The body is attached to the descending portion of the pubic bone by the crura of the penis. The cone-shaped head of the penis, the glans penis, contains the urethral orifice. It is covered with a movable hood known as the foreskin or prepuce, under which is secreted the substance called smegma.
Describe Hymen
A fold of mucous membrane that partially covers the entrance to the vagina. Contrary to folklore, the presence or absence (or rupture) of the hymen cannot be used to prove or disprove virginity or history of sexual intercourse. Pregnancy has been known to occur even when the hymen is intact.
Describe mons pubis
A pad of fatty tissue and skin overlying the symphysis pubis. After puberty it is covered with coarse hair.
Describe Clitoris
One of the structures of the female genitalia; a small erectile body located beneath the anterior labial commissure and partially hidden by the anterior portion of the labia minora.
They are covered by the ischiocavernosus muscles. The glans, which forms the free distal end, is a small rounded tubercle composed of erectile tissue. It is highly sensitive. The glans is usually covered by a hoodlike prepuce, and its ventral surface is attached to the frenulum of the labia.
Describe Vagina
A musculomembranous tube that forms the passageway between the cervix uteri and the vulva. A sheath-like part between the cervix and the vulva in the female mammal.
Describe Urethral orifice
External urethral orifice The exterior opening of the urethra. In the male, it is located at the tip of the glans penis; in the female, it is located anterior and cephalad (Toward the head or anterior section) to the vaginal opening.
Internal urethral orifice The opening from which the urethra makes its exit from the bladder.
Describe Labia Minora
The two thin folds of integument that lie between the labia majora.
Describe Labia majora
The two folds of skin and adipose tissue on either side of the labia minora and vaginal opening
They form the lateral borders of the vulva.
Describe the role of the nurse when assisting in an internal GU exam.
These procedures are only handled by ANP or Nurse Midwives and the RN is usually assisting in the procedure.
The role of the RN is to see that the client is comfortable on the examination tableand draped appropriately.

RN assures that vaginal speculums of various sizes are at the ready so the examiner can use the appropriate size. Gloves, Slides for Pap Smear, spatula and cyto-brush should all be at the ready as well.

During the Pap Smear, the RN sprays the specimine with cytologic fixative and labels the slide.

The RN does teaching about post procedural spotting, then assist client back to a sitting position, or asssits with hygiene as necessary.
Describe Nosocomial Infection
An Infection obtained in a hospital setting. It is related to the Urinary system, because 80% of Nosocomial infections are of the urinary tract. It is thought that these are related to bacteria (primarily Escheria Coli) which reaches the bladder and kidney via an indwelling catheter.
Describe Micturition
The act of urination. It is controlled by the Micturition Center and the Micturition Reflex
Potter 1325
What is the most common Nosocomial Infection?
Most often from E-coli and indwelling catheders
What is the Primary Organ of Bowel Elimination?
Large Intesting
What are the functions of the colon
Absorption, secretion, and elimination.
How does Peristalsis affect elimination?
*If peristalsis too fast, less time for water to be absorbed and stool will be watery.
*If peristalsis is too slow, more water is absorbed and stool becomes hard mass resulting in constipation.
Describe Bowel Elimination
*Properly functioning LI helps assist in electrolyte balance.
*Intestinal content promotes peristaltic contractions resulting in 3-4 mass movements each day.
*Rectum final portion of LI. Contains folds that hold feces during defecation. Folds have artery and vein that become distended causing hemorrhoids.
*Stool reaching the rectum causing distention and relaxation of the internal sphincter and awareness of the need to defecate
*At defecation the external sphincter relaxes and abdominal muscles push out stool.
*Valsalva maneuver An attempt to forcibly exhale with the glottis, nose, and mouth closed can assist with stool passage, but can cause problems with heart patients, glaucoma, or surgical wounds.
What is the function unit of the Kidney?
What is normal adult urin output each day?
1500-1600 ml/day
Describe the Nephron
Consisting of the glomerulus, Bowmans Capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting ducts.
How does Urine get from collecting ducts to the urinary bladder?
Does urine travel to the bladder continually?
No, it is deliverd in spurts
What is the Trigone?
A triangular space, esp. one at the base of the bladder, between the two openings of the ureters and the urethra.
Why does urine leave the body "turbulently"?
Helps keep the urethra free of bacteria.
How long is the female urethra?
4-6.5 cm
How long is the male urethra?
about 20cm
Name the three sections of the male urethra.
prostatic, membranous, and penile urethra.
Descibe Urination Control
Urination is controlled by cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and brain stem.
They suppress the contraction of bladder and detrusor muscle until person wishes to void. Stretching of the bladder (at 150-200mls of total 600ml adult capacity) sends signals to micturition center causing detrusor muscle to contract. Internal urethral sphincter relaxes, urine enters the urethra. The person then relaxes the external sphincter and the bladder empties.
What is the normal capacity of the adult urinary bladder?
About how many ml of urine in the Urinary Bladder signal the brain to consider emptying the bladder?
Describe Oliguria
Diminised capacity to produce urine. Usually less than 400 ml/day.
Describe Polyuria
excessive output of urine
Incrased urine formation from caffein
Define Bacteruria
Bacteria in the urine
Define Dysuria
Pain or Burning during urination. Symptomatic of numerous conditions.
Define Hematuria
Blood in urine
What is a Ureterostomy?
A urinary diversion.

The formation of a permanent fistula for drainage of a ureter.
Define pyelonephritis
Inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis, usually as a result of a bacterial infection that has ascended from the urinary bladder.
Define Cystitis
Irritated Bladder

Bladder inflammation usually occurring as a result of a urinary tract infection.
When are a childs Sinuses Fully Developed?
About Age 7
Developmental HEENT Considerations for Pregnant Women.
Pregnant Clients
Thyroid more active is often palpable

Chloasma* occurs on face

Gums may hypertrophy#

*Tan to brown, sharply defined patches of skin pigment, usually found symmetrically on the forehead, temples, cheeks, or upper lip.

An increase in the size of an organ or structure, or of the body, owing to growth rather than tumor formation.
Cultural Considerations Head, Face, and Neck
African Americans may develop pseudofolliculitis*

Chinese Americans have very little facial hair

Irish Americans are at ªrisk for Skin cancer on sun exposed areas

Filipino Americans have almond-shaped eyes, mildly flared nostrils, and a low, flat nose bridge.

*Inflammation of beard follicles when tightly coiled hairs become ingrown.
When do Infants settle on permanent Eye Color?
Nine Months
Whas is an Infants Visual Aquity at Birth?
Describe Cultural Considerations For Eye Assessment
Asians-epicanthal fold

In dark skin races-muddy sclera

Blacks- ªIncidence and severity of glaucoma

In sunny climates-- ªcataract occurrence
Define Otorrhea
Inflammation of ear with purulent discharge.
Define otalgia
Pain in the Ear
Describe Primary Function of Female Genitourinary System
Manufacturing and protecting ova for fertilization
Transporting fertilized ovum for implantation and embryonic/fetal development

Housing and nourishing developing fetus

Regulates and secretes sex hormones

Sexual stimulation and pleasure

Provides exit for excretion of urine
Define Amenorrhea
Absence of menstruation, either as a result of lack of menarche (i.e., lack of menstruation by age 16) or absence of menstruation for more than 3 months in women who had previously experienced menstruation and who are not pregnant.
Define pediculosis
Infestitation with Lice
Define hydrocele
The accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, esp. in the tunica vaginalis testis.
Define witch's milk:
Milk secreted by the newly born infant's breast, stimulated by the lactating hormone circulating in the mother.
When Does Colostrum Form?
Third Trimester
List Nodes of the Breast
Located above the clavicle.
Below the clavicle.
Beside the sternum.

Below the scapula.


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