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lab exam-musculoskeletal, GU, GI


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how do you asseess posutre in newborns?
palpate clavicals for fractures and hips for dysplasia
how do you assess spinal curvature?
observe pt with standing, then have them bend forward at the waist with the arms hanging free at sides.
Lordosis may be a normal finding in what age group?
children under 5.
where should the patella be located?
midline drawn from the anterior superior iliac crest to the feet.
genu varum
bowlegs. It is normal for 1 year after the child begins to walk
how do you assess gait in children and adults?
in children, watch them play ,in adults have them walk
what is the average base of support for an adult?
2-4 inches
what is the average stride length for an adult?
12-14 inches
when observing gait what may reflect a balance problem?
a wide base of support and shortened stride length.
how do you assess balance in infants?
they should be able to sit alone by 8 months?
how do you assess balance in adults?
heel to toe walking in straight line, then walking on heels, walking on toes, deep knee bends and hopping in palce. The romerg test can also be done if not already
How do you assess coordination?
finger thumb opposition, and pronating/supinating the hands. Rhythmic toe tapping and running the heel of one foot downt he shin of the opposite leg.
how do you test accuracy of movements?
finger to nose with eyes open, then closed
where do you measure the arm when comparing arm lengths?
from the acromion process to the tip of the middle finger
where do you measure on the leg to compare to the other legs length?
anterior superior iliac crest to the medial malleolus.
in comparing the legs and arms in both length and circumfrance, what should the difference between them be?
less than 1 cm.
what are Heberdens nodes?
they are hard, painless nodules over the ends of fingers--usually seen in DJD but may also occur in RA
severe misalignments are usually caused by what?
usually DJD
crepitus may be heard in?
where are the imaginary lines drawn in the 4 quadrent assessment of the abdomen?
from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphosis and horizontally through the umbilicus
what position for a abdominal exam?
supine wiht knees up (dorsal recumbant)
bowel sounds occur how often and are what pitch?
high pitch and ever 5-15 seconds. (or 5-30 times a minute)
if a client has an NG tube and you are doing an abdominal assessment, what should you do?
clamp the tube while your listening for sounds.
absent bowel sounds
none heard for 5 minues
hypoactive bowel sounds
infrequent , maybe 1 a minute
hyperactive bowel sounds
every 2 or 3 seconds
what organ is not palpable?
concave abdomen
what might cause abdomnial asymetry
scoliosis, tumors, cysts, or bowel obstruction
what are dialated veins associated with?
liver disease and obstruction of the vena cava
what may pulsations (other than in a thin client) in the abdomen indicate?
aortic aneurysm
what might protrusion of the umbilicus result from?
hernia or underlying mass (
when are bowel sounds the loudesT?
5-6 hours after a person eats
what part of the stethescope do you listen to bowel sounds with?
the diaphragm
what part of the stethoscope do you listen for bruits with?
the bell.
where should you auscultate on the abdomen?
the aorta, and the renal , iliac and femoral arteries.
what might bruits represent in the abdomen?
may indicate an aneurysm or an altered blood flow
when percussing the abdomen what sounds should be present?
tympany and dullness over the organs.
what is the costovertebral angle?
where the ribcage meets the spine in the back. (its where your kidneys can be percussed.

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