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The study of humankind in all times and places is
Anthropology is distinct because of its focus on the ______ and ________ of all aspects of the human experience in all places, n the present and deep into the past, well before written history.
interconnection, and interdependence
A fundamental principle of anthropology, that the various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence is
holistic perspective
Anthropologists work with the understnading that to fully access the complexities of human ideas, behavior, and biology, ____ humans, wherever and whenever, must be studied.
A _____-_____ and long term evolutionary perspective distinguishes _______ from other social sciences.
cross-cultural, and anthropology
Studying all cultures guards against the danger that theories of human behavior will be ______-______.
culture bound
Babies sleeping with their parents opposed to babies sleeping without their parents is an example of _______-_______.
culture bound
______ anthropology, also called biological anthropology, focuses on humans as biological organisms.
Anthropologists that focus on human evolution, primatology, growth, and development, human adaptation, and forensics are called _______ or ________ anthropologists.
Physical or bilogical
The anthropological study of genes and genetic relationships, contributes significaltly to the contemporary study of human biological diversity is ___________ anthropology.
Comparisons among groups separated by time, geography, or the frequency of a particular gene can reveal how humans have _______ and ______.
adapted, and migrated
There are _ fields of anthropology.
Some anthropologists consider _______ and _______ as part of the broader study of anthropology.
archaeology and linguistics
Individuals within each of the fields practice _______ anthropology.
_________ anthropology,something all anthropologists practice is the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems.
One of the earliest contexts in which anthropological knowledge was applied to a practical problem was the _________ _____ ____ ________ that began in the 1920s.
International public health movement
What marked the beginning of medical anthropology?
the International public health movement
_____ anthropology is a specialization that brings theoretical and applied approaches from the fields of cultural and biological anthropology to the study of human health and disease.
Human evolutionary studies are known as
______ anthropology (human evolutionary studies) focus on biological changes through time to understand how, when, and why we became the kind of organisms we are today.
We humans are _______, one of the many kinds of mammals.
Humans (primates) share a common ancestry with other primates, most specifically ____.
Peleoanthropology, unlike other evolutionary studies, takes a _______ approach.
________ approach focuses on the interaction of biology and culture.
Fossilized skeletons of our ancestors allow _____________ to reconstruct the course of human evolutionary history.
Studying the ________ and ________ of the other primates helps us understand what we share with our closest living relatives and what makes humans unique.
anatomy and behavior
_______ is the study of living and fossil primates.
Primatology is a vital part of the _______ anthropology.
Monkeys, lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers are all ________.
_______ anthropology focuses on the cultural aspects of language.
________ anthropology has deep connections to the evolution of human language and the biological basis of speech and language studied within physical anthropology.
The focus of the interconnections and interdependence of all aspects of the human experience in all places, in the present and deep into the past, well before written history is
The idea that the various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence.
Holistic perspective
The standards by which societies operate is
What standards are socially learned, rather than acquired through biological inheritance?
Some persons are “more cultured” in the anthropological sense than others.

True or False?


No person is “more cultured” in the anthropological sense than any other.

Theories about the world and reality based on the assumptions and values of one’s own culture is called
Culture Bound
Anthropologists are concerned with the objective and systematic study of humankind. This demonstrates
comparative method
What method is key to all branches of anthropology?
Anthropologists make broad comparisons among peoples and cultures past and present, related species, and fossil groups is an example of what
comparative method
What involves collaboration with communities in order to set goals, solve problems, and conduct research together?
Applied anthropology
Analyzes indicate that the human line originated _to_ million years ago.
5 to 8
Primatologists designate the shared, learned behavior of nonhuman apes as _________.
What indicates the elementary basis of language in some ape societies.
Tool use and communication systems
Anthropologists examine biological mechanisms of growth as well as the impact
of the environment on the growth process.
_______ anthropologists study the impacts of disease, pollution, and poverty on growth.
Studies of _______ _______ focus on the capacity of humans to adapt or adjust to their material environment—biologically and culturally.
human adaptation
A sub-field of applied physical anthropology that specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes is __________ anthropology.
________ __________ use details of skeletal anatomy to establish age, sex, population affiliation, and stature of the deceased
Forensic anthropologists
_________ anthropology is also known as social anthropology or sociocultural anthropology.
The study of customary patterns in human behavior, thought, and feelings is ______ anthropology.
_______ anthropology focuses on humans as culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures.

________ anthropology involves two main components: ethnography and ethnology.
________ is a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork, which is on-location research. It is a combination of social participation and personal observation within the community being studied.
The ethnographic method of interviews and discussions with individual members of a group is referred to as ______ observation.
Another part of cultural anthropology is _______. The study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view.
________ utilizes ethnographic accounts and develops anthropological theories that explain why differences or similarities occur among groups.
_______ is the term anthropologists use for on-location research.
_________ is used in learning a people’s culture through participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with members of the group over an extended period of time.
________ may study the description of a language - how a sentence is formed, or a verb conjugated.
____ may study the history of languages - how languages develop and change with the passage of time.
Linguistics may also study the relationship between ______ and ________.
Language and culture
________ is the study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data.
One of the archeological sub specializations is _________, which is the archaeological study of human remains.
Another branch of archaeology is ______, which is the cross-cultural study of indigenous plants.
Another branch of archaeology is _________, which is tracking animal remains at archaeological sites.
A branch of archaeology concerned with survey and or excavation of archaeological and historical remains threatened by construction or development and policy surrounding protection of cultural resources is
cultural resource management
_______ is any object fashioned or altered by humans; a form of material culture.
______ places containing archaeological remains of previous human activity.
_______ the preserved remains of plants and animals that lived in the past.
_____ _____ is a technique that establishes the relationship among a series of remains by using geological principles to place remains in chronological order.
Relative dating
_______ _______ also called chronometric dating; establishes actual dates calculated in years “before the present” by using properties such as rates of decay of radioactive elements.
Absolute dating
_____ is based on observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith.

_________ is a tentative explanation of the relation between certain phenomena.

In science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data is called a ________.

An assertion of opinion or belief formally handed down by an authority as true and indisputable is called _______.

Artifact, site, and fossil are all field methods of ________ and ___________.
archaeology and paleoanthropology
Absolute and relative dating are techniques or _________ and __________.
archaeology and paleoanthropology
Biological, archaeology, linguistic, and cultural are the fields of what?

______ ______ is a member of the society being studied who provides information to researchers so that they understand the meaning of what they observe.

key consultant
______ ______ is an unstructured, open-ended conversation in everyday life.

informal interview
______ _____ are activities and objects used to draw out individuals to help them recall and explain.
Eliciting devices
_____ ________ is a structured question-answer session based on prepared questions.
formal interview
Formal interview, informal interview, eliciting devices, and key consulting are all ________ field methods.
“Anthropological researchers must do everything in their power to ensure that their research does not harm the safety, dignity, or privacy of the people with whom they work, conduct research, or perform other professional activities.”

This is
Anthropological ethics
Anthropologists have special obligations to those whom they study, those who fund the research, and those in the scientific community. This demonstrates _______ ________.
Anthropological ethics
Worldwide interconnectedness, evidenced in global movements of natural resources, trade goods, human labor, finance capital, information, and infectious diseases
What was an early form of classification of living things used in Europe called?
Great chain of being
The group of mammals that includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans is called
The class of vertebrate animals distinguished by bodies covered with fur, self regulating temperature, and in females milk producing mammary glands is called
The smallest working unit in the system of classification is
Among living organisms, species are populations or groups of populations capable of interbreeding and producing fertile viable offspring is called
In the system of plant and animal classification, a group of like species is called
genus, genera
the science of classification is called
In biology, structures possessed by different organisms that are superficially similar due to similar functions; without sharing a common development pathway or structure is called
The Great chain of being was first developed by who and where over how many years ago?
Aristotle in ancient Greece over 2,000 years ago
In the Great Chain of being categories were based upon visible similarities. One member of each category as considered its ______.
An example of the great chain of being is the primate of rocks was the _______. The primate of birds was the _____.
The great chain of being was in place until ______ developed the _____ _______, or system of nature.
Carolus Linnaeus, Systema Naturae (system of nature)
The Systema Naturae was made to ________ all living things.
Linnaeus classified living things into categories that are progressively more inclusive on the basis of internal and external ________ __________.
visual similarities
Linnaeus & his Classificatory System: A Guernsey cow and a Holstein cow are the same species because they have identical body structure. This is his classification of what?

Body structure
Linnaeus & his Classificatory System: Cows and horses give birth to live young. Although they are different species, they are closer than either cows or horses are to chickens.
This is an classification of what?

Body function
Linnaeus & his Classification: At the time of birth—or hatching out of the egg—young cows and chickens resemble their parents in their body plan. This is a classification of what?

Sequence of bodily growth
What is based on more than body structure, function, and growth?

today scientists base taxonomy also on ________ comparisons.
What are the taxonomic categories?

________ ________ formulated the theory of natural selection and published it in 1859.
Charles Darwin
Who had the theory that: All species display variation and have the ability to expand beyond their means of subsistence.

Charles Darwin
Darwin said- In their “struggle for existence,” organisms with _______ that help them survive will _________ more successfully.

Darwin said - Nature selects the most advantageous variations, and ________ evolve.

The hand of a human and the wing of a bat evolved from the forelimb of a common ancestor, though they have acquired different functions. This is an example of what?
The wings of birds and butterflies look similar and have similar function (flying). These are _______, but not _______, structures because they do not follow the same developmental sequence.
In biology, structures possessed by two different organisms that arise in similar fashion and pass through similar stages during embryonic development, though they may possess different functions are called __________.
The evolutionary process through which factors in the environment exert pressure, favoring some individuals over others to produce the next generation is called _______ ________.
natural selection
A ______ is a portion of the DNA molecule that contains a sequence of base pairs that encode a particular protein.
Who deduced the presence and activity of genes by experimenting with garden peas to determine how traits are passed from one generation to the next?

Mendel discovered that inheritance was ________, rather than _______, as Darwin thought.

Units controlling the expression of visible traits come in pairs. One from each parent, and retain their separate identities over the generations rather than blending into a combination of parental traits in offspring. This is the Law of _________.
The law of segregation what a principle written by who?
The law of independent assortment was written by who?
The principle that genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another is the law of what?
The law of independent assortment
In the cell nucleus, _________ are the structures visible during cellular division containing long strands of DNA combined with a protein.

When chromosomes were discovered at the start of the ___ century, they provided a visible vehicle for transmission of ______ proposed in Mendel’s laws.

What is Deoxyribonucleic acid?
DNA is the genetic material consisting of a complex molecule whose _____ structure directs the synthesis of _______.
In 1953 ___________ and ____________ found that genes are actually portions of molecules of DNA.

James Watson and Francis Crick
Mendel based his laws on statistical frequencies of observed characteristics such as ______ and _______ in generations of plants.
_____ are long strands that form ________.
Alternate forms of a single gene is a ______.
Example: The gene for a human blood type in the A-B-O system refers to a specific portion of a DNA molecule, and ________ correspond to alternate forms of this gene that determine the specific blood type.

The complete sequence of human DNA is called _______ ________.
humane genome
The _______ contains 3 billion chemical bases, with about 20,000–25,000 functioning genes, a number similar to that found in most mammals.
Of the 3 billion bases, humans and ______ are about 90 percent identical
In order to grow and maintain good health, the body cells of an organism must divide and produce new cells. This is called _____ _______.

Cell division
_______ _______ is initiated when chromosomes replicate, forming a second pair that duplicates the original pair of chromosomes in the nucleus.

Cell division
What is the kind of cell division that produces new cells having exactly the same number of chromosome pairs as the parent cell?

In mitosis the DNA “unzips” between the base pairs—________ from _______ and ________ from ______.

A from T
G from C
In mitosis, after the A from T G from C each base on each now single strand attracts its ______ ______, reconstituting the second half of the double helix.

complementary base
In mitosis after the second half is reconstructed, each new pair is surrounded by a membrane and becomes the nucleus of a new _____.

In mitosis, as long as no errors are made in the process, cells within organisms can divide to form ________ cells.

Daughter cells are ....
exact genetic copies of the parent cell
What is the kind of cell division that produces sex cells, each of which has half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism?


For meiosis, in humans this involves __ pairs of _______.

Sexual reproduction increases genetic diversity and has contributed to ________ among sexually reproducing species.

Alleles possessed for a particular trait are called ______.
What refers to a chromosome pair that bears different alleles for a single gene?
What refers to the chromosome pair that bears identical alleles for a single gene?
What is the ability of one allele for a trait to mask the presence of another allele?
What is an allele for a trait whose expression is masked by the presence of a dominant allele?

What is the protein that carries oxygen to the red blood cells?
What is the observable or testable appearance of an organism that may or may not reflect a particular genotype due to the variable expression of dominant and recessive alleles?
What is it called when two or more genes contribute to the phenotypical expression of a single character?
Polygenetic inheritance
_______ alleles can be handed down for generations before they are matched with another ________ allele in the process of sexual reproduction and show up in the phenotype.
The presence of the _______ allele masks the expression of the _______ allele.
a _______ is a group of similar individuals that can and do interbreed.
The _____ _____ refers to the genetic variants possessed by all members of a population.
gene pool
Over generations, the relative proportions of alleles in a population changes according to the reproductive success of individuals within that population. This is called what?
Four evolutionary forces—mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection—are responsible for the ______ changes that underlie _______ variation.
Evolutionary forces (mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection) create and pattern _________.
The evolutionary process through which genetic variation at the population level is shaped to fit local environmental conditions is called ________ _________.
Natural Selection
Over time, changes in the genetic structure of the population are visible in the biology or behavior of a population, and such genetic changes can result in the formation of new species. This is ______ ________.
natural selection
The introduction of new alleles from nearby populations is ____ ____.
Gene flow
_______ and _______ factors lead to gene flow.
Among humans, social factors such as mating rules, intergroup conflict, and our ability to travel great distances affect ____ ____.
gene flow
________ is the ultimate source of evolutionary change that constantly introduces new variation.
________ may arise whenever copying mistakes are made during cell division
Environmental factors such as dyes, antibiotics, and chemicals may increase the rate at which ______ occur.
Radiation (industrial or solar) is also a cause of _________
In all ___________ animals, genetic material ensures that mutations will occur.
Mutations occur ________ and do not arise out of need for some new adaptation
What refers to chance fluctuations of allele frequencies of the gene pool of a population?
genetic drift
_________ ________ is likely to have been an important factor in human evolution, because until 10,000 years ago, all humans were food foragers who lived in small, self-contained populations.
genetic drift
The _______ ______ trait, caused by the inheritance of an abnormal form of hemoglobin, is an adaptation found in regions in which malaria is common.

sickle cell
_______ is the continuous gradation over space in the form or frequency of a trait.

Clinal analysis allows anthropologist to study the human variation in terms of body shape to what?
adaptation to climate

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