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Intro to Psych 1


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Emotion is a mix of:
Physiological Arousal(heart pounding), Expressive behaviors, Conscious Experience
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
mobilizes body (sympathetic and parasympathetic)
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
part of PNS Sympathetic - Arousal (heart, blood pressure) Parasympathetic - calms
Estimate of the degree to which any trait or behavior is due to genetic influence
when effect of one factor (environment) depends on another factor (heredity)
adaptive traits are passed on to generations due to their aid in survival and reproduction
Natural Selection
we are not entitled to derive moral statements from factual ones; there is no connection between what is in nature and what should be
Naturalistic Fallacy
Sex vs. Gender
sex=male/female-biological differences gender=masculine/feminine-characteristics that society defines
sex + gender role
children learn gender linked behaviors by observing and imitating and being rewarded
Social Learning Theory
children learn from cultures how to be male or female
Gender Schema Theory
Prenatal Development
Zygote - conception--2weeks (fertilized egg) Embryo - 2--8weeks(critical period-growth) Fetus - 9weeks--birth(organ function)
harmful agents such as certain drugs, alcohol
mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
interpreting one's new experience based on own schemas
adapting current schemas for new info
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor(0-2yrs), Preoperational(2-6yrs), Concrete Operational(7-11yrs), Formal Operational Stage(12-adult)
Sensorimotor Stage
Object Permanance - objects continue to exist out of site
Peroperational Stage
Egocentrism - cant take anothers point of view Theory of Mind-realize how you and others think
Concrete Operational Stage
Mental operations Conservation Mathematical transformations
Formal Operational Stage
thinking and logical reasoning
form attachments during critical period very early in life
Hindbrain parts and function
Cerebellum-"little brain"-time, balance, movement Pons and Medulla-automatic processes
Midbrain function
sensory processing and motor control
Forebrain parts and function
Thalamus-sensory switchboard Hypothalamus-Pleasure/reward Amygdala-emotion response and memories Limbic System-emotions and drives
Limbic System parts and functions
Hypothalamus-pleasure Amygdala-emotion response and memory Hippocampus-memories
Cerebral Cortex parts and functions
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobes -thinking and consciousness
impairment of language due to damage to Broca's area or Wernicke's area
Aphasia -Brocas-speech -Wernickes-understanding
Neuron parts and functions
Axon-sends messages Dendrites-recieve messages Terminal Branches-forms junctions with other cells Interneurons-connects 2 neurons
Sensory vs. Motor Neurons
Sensory-carry info from receptors to CNS Motor-carry info from CNS to muscles
Action Potential
electrical charge through axon -Excitatory-GO -Inhibitory-NO GO
Chemicals released by neuron across synapses to bind to receptor sites Serotonin-arousal Acetylcholine-motor neuron to muscle Endorphins-pain control and pleasure
Somatic vs. Autonomic NS
S-voluntary control A-Heart beat, arouses and calms body
transformation of stimulus energy to neural impulses
R=long wavelengths(700nm) V=short wavelengths(400nm)
lens reshapes to focus on near or far object
retina has 3 color receptors; red, green, blue; which produce color
Trichromatic Theory
opposing retinal processes(red-green, yellow-blue, and white-black) produce color
Opposing-process Theory
How color is produced
COLOR=trichromatic theory + opponent process theory
5 Taste Senses
sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and unami
Sense of Smell
chemical sense; smell causes strong memories
taste + smell + texture
spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass to the brain
Gate Control Theory
24 hour cycle - due to body temp, alertness, and hormone release
Circadian Rhythms
light triggers this to decrease melatonin from pineal gland in morning and increase in evening
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
Sleep Stages
Stage1/2-light sleep; theta waves Stage2-sleep spindles(burst of brain activity) Stage3/4-deepest sleep; delta waves Stage4-night terrors Stage5-REM sleep; vivid dreams
Brain Waves
Beta-normal waking(REM) Alpha-deep relaxation Theta-light sleep Delta-deep sleep
Freudian term meaning the story line of a dream
Manifest Content
hypnotic subjects may simply be imaginative actors
Social Influence Theory
hypnosis is a special state of divided consciousness
Divided Consciousness

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