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Psychology 110 - Ch. 1, 2, 11, 13


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Preferred method of knowledge acquisition
The experimental method
Goals of Psychology
The experimental method
The only research method that can be used to identify cause-effect relationships between variables
Dependent variable
Independent variable
Correlational method
when experimental can't be used
correlation coefficent
number that indicates strength and direction of the relationship between two variables, between 1 and -1
Neuron structure
myelin sheath (sometimes)
Neural messages are transmitted... from cell body to axon, which transmits to dendrites on another neuron. myelin helps speed it up.
left frontal lobe
motion on right side of body, broca's area (speech production)
sexual behavior, hunger, thirst, some emotions
cerebral cortex
covering for brain, responsible for higher mental processes
motor cortex
controls movement. higher up on the cortex, lower it is on the body (foot on top, neck on bottom, etc.)
gray matter
damage to broca's area
broca's aphasia. can't produce speech (with much difficulty) but can sing because that's housed on the other side of the brain.
Damage to one primary visual cortex
partial sight in both eyes
right/left hemisphere
control the other half
all processes that initiate, direct and sustain behavior
theories on motivation: drive-reduction
based on homeostasis (internal balance); biological need causes organism to satisfy need to reduce the drive it creates
theories on motivation: instinct theory
human behavior motivated by instincts
theories on motivation: arousal theory
motivated to maintain optimal level of arousal
theories on motivation: maslow
1) physiological
2) safety
3) belonging/love
4) esteem
5) self-actualization
yerkes-dodson law
performance is best when arousal level is appropriate to difficulty: easier/high arousal, vice versa
lateral hypothalamus (lh)
incites eating
ventromedial hypothalamus (vmh)
inhibits eating
hunger cues
internal (blood sugar, etc.), external (bad-tasting food, etc.)
metabolic rate
rate at which body burns calories for energy
set-point theory
weight you normally carry when not trying to lose/gain weight
anorexia nervosa/bulimia
starvation/binge-purge; difficult to treat, but some success
testing need for achievement
need to accomplish something
high need for achievement
see success as a result of their own doings
low need for achievement
blame others/luck/fate
theories of emotion: james-lange
feels emotion based on physiological (fear based on trembling)
theories of emotion: cannon-bard
stimuli received - relayed to cerebral cortex and nervous system - state of arousal
theories of emotion: schachter-singer
physiological arousal + cognitive interpretation = emotion
theories of emotion: lazarus
cognitive appraisal comes first
brain + fear =
basic emotions
unlearned & universal, facial expressions
display rules
big boys don't cry
not beneficial
holmes & rahe
social readjustment rating scale (SRRS) (connection between stress and health problems)
lazarus believed that stress...
is worse when it's the daily hassles rather than large events
conflict types
we feel better when we think we have control
ptsd symptoms
flashbacks, nightmares, memories, anxiety, survivor guilt
general adaptation syndrome
alarm, resistance, exhaustion
primary appraisal v. secondary appraisal
is this dangerous to me? how do i deal?
coronary heart disease risk factors
smoking, weight, heredity, sedentary lifestyle
type a v. type b
uptight v. laid back
type a "lethal"
increasing the risk of cancer
early sex, smoking, drinking,
asian americans
quitting smoking
on your own
alcohol's long-term effect
shrinking brain
aerobic exercise
#1 alterable behavior to be healthy

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