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B AD 302 Test 4 Chapter 15


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Know the 5 elements of Managing Planned Change
Change - Making things different.
Planned Change - Change activities that are intentional and goal oriented.
First-Order Change - Linear and continuous.
Second-Order Change - Change that is multidimensional, multilevel, discontinuous, and radical.
Change Agents - Persons who act as catalysts and assume responsibility for managing change activities.
Know the 4 elements that change agents can change
1. Structure - Change Agents can alter one or more of the key elements in a an organization's design.
2. Technology - Competitive factors or innovations within an industry often require change agents to introduce new equipment, tools, or operating methods.
3. Physical Settings
4. People - Change agents help individuals and groups within the organization work more effectively together
What are the four approaches to Managing organizational change?
1. Lewin’s Three Step Model –
1) Unfreezing (change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual/group conformity),
2) movement to a new state, and
3) refreezing (stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and reactive forces) the new change.
2. Action Research – A change process based on systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate.
3. Organizational Development – A collection of planned change interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.
What is a learning organization?
An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change.
Define stress
A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
What are the three potential sources of stress?
1. Environmental Factors – economic/political/technological uncertainty
2. Organizational Factors- Task Demands, role demands, interpersonal demands, org. structure/leadership/life stage
3. Individual Factors – Family, economic, and personality problems
What are the three individual consequences of stress and examples of each?
Physiological Symptoms – blood pressure, headaches, etc.
Psychological Symptoms – tension, anxiety, etc.
Behavioral Symptoms – Sleep disorders, alcoholism, etc.
Compare driving and restraining forces?
Driving Forces - Direct behavior away from the status quo.

Restraining Forces – Hinder Movement from the existing equilibrium
What is sensitivity training?
Training groups that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction
What is survey feedback?
The use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member perceptions; discussion follows and remedies are suggested.
What is process consultation?
A consultant assists a client to understand process events with which he or she must deal and identify processes that need improvement.
What is team building?
High interaction among team members to increase trust and openness.
What is intergroup development?
OD efforts to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other.
What is appreciative inquiry?
Seeks to identify the unique and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built on to improve performance.
What is innovation?
A new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service.
What are idea champions?
Individuals who take an innovation and actively and enthusiastically promote the idea, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that the idea is implemented.
What is double-loop learning?
Errors are corrected by modifying the organization’s objectives, policies, and standard routines.
What is knowledge management?
A process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time.
What are constraints and demands?
Constraints – Forces that prevent individuals from doing what they desire.
Demands – The loss of something desired.
What are wellness programs?
Organizationally supported programs that focus on the employee’s total physical and mental condition

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