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Elastic capability of muscles
measure of aerobic capacity
VO2 max
By-product of anaerobic glycolysis
lactic acid
oxygen carrying/storage protein in the muscle
substances that mimic male hormones, cause musclar hypertrophy
anabolic steriods
Ability of muscles to contract against resistence
Enlargement of muscle tissue in response to exercise
replensished ATP during the first 5 minutes of exercise
way of increasing glycogen storage
CHO loading
decrease in amt of muscle tissue in response to inactivity
primary protein in breast milk
transfer of microbes from one food to aother via hands, utensils, or surfaces
cross contamination
fluid rick in maternal antibodies secretd the first few days after birth
number 1 hazard of us food supply
microbial food poisioning
virally caused foodborne illness characterized by liver inflammation
hepatitis A
inadequate folate intake during pregnancy increases the risk of
nueral tube effects and spina bufida
inability to digest a component in food
food intolerance
pathogenic bacteria that cause foodborne illness
E coli, listeria, salmonella
the fetus' own personal spa
amniotic sac
illness caused by ingestion of food containing baceria that subsequently multiply in the digestive tract
foodborne illness
leading cause of preventable birth defects
cause is alcohol...preventable by FAS and FAE
accumulation of toxins, beginning low on the food chain and moving up to the level of human consumption
the single most important factor affecting health as one ages
physical activity
ingestion of a food contatining microbial toxins resultin in
foodborne intoxication
loss of central vision, leading cause of blindness in older people
macular degeneration
primary carbohydrate in breast milk
pregnant women should avoid consuming large predatory fish because they may contain high levels
of mercury
E1: Oxygen and nutrients move from the blood into the ____ by the ____
extracellular fluid, hydrostatic pressure
the greatest number of healthy years and fewest years of illness as one ages
compression morbidity
food components that cause production of antibodies results in a food
period of rapid cell divion when anorgan is most susceptible to lack of nutrients
critical period
E1: Functions of the pancrease include all but:
a. nutrient absorption
b. digestive enzyme synthesis
c. secretion of hormones that regulate blood glucose
d. secretion of bicarbonate
a. nutrient absorption
deficiency of iodine in a pregnanct woman may result in
organ that transports nutrients and O2, into the mother's blood
e1: Fat-soluble products of digestion are initially transported in
lymphatic vessels
mineral that is most often deficient in children and teens
e3: In anaerboic glycolysis, glucose is converted to 2 molecules of _____ which are then converted to______
pyruvate, lactate
fish toxin
ciguatera, scromboid
The type of research that studies population over time is?? (exam 1)
e3: NADH and FADH are compounds that function as
Electron acceptors and donors in redox reactions
Exam 1: Which of the following IS NOT an essential nutrient: Carbohydrates, cholesterol, protein, fat
cholesterol is not
Exam1: Chronic disease that is most diet-responsive
Type 2 diabetes
Exam1: 2 systems that have the largest role in maintaining homeostasis in the body are?
endocrine and nervous
The compound to which all 3 macronutrients are converted prior to entering the TCA (krebs) cycle is:
acetyl CoA
Exam 2: It is recommended that we consume oils containing ___________ in the highest ammounts.
monounsaturated fatty acids
Exam 2: When a protein is denatured
it's secondary and tertiary structures are disrupted
Which of the following does not occur in the liver?
a. cholesterol synthesis
b. ketone production
c. urea syntheis
d. fatty acid storage
fatty acid storage
Exam 2: _____transports lipids from the _____ to the _____
LDL; liver to tissues
(E2)_____and____ improves blood glucose tolerance and lowers blood cholesterol levels
Soluble fibers and oats
e3: ethanol detoxification begins in the____ with _____
stomach, alcohol dehyrogenase (ADH)
(E2) When cells are deprived of CHO, fat can't be completely oxidized. The products of incomplete fax oxidation are:
e3:Which of the following contributes the most to energy expenditure
basal metabolism
(e2)The essential fatty acid _____ is found primarily in vegetable oils, is _____
linoleic, omega 6
(e2)Synthesis of nonessential amino acids is accomplished by _____ reactions
e3:Which of the following fuels are stored rather than oxidized immediately for energy
E2: _______is a result of automimmune response in which pancreatic beta cells are destroyed
E2:The 2 main types of CHO are
sugars and polysaccharides
e3: which of the following factors decreases BMR?
a. pregnancy
b. dieting
c. growth
d. stress
b. dieting
E1: What is the most nutrient dense source of calcium
Nonfat milk
E1: The _____ releases stomach contents into the duodenum
Pyloric Sphincter
E1: Nutrient-rich blood from the intestinal capillary bed circulates directly to the:
e3: When a person gains excess fat as a child?
adipocyte hyperplasia (cells multiply)
e3:Anorexia and bulimia nervosa are considered
psychological disorders
e4: Functions of Vitamin A include ALL BUT which of the following functions?
a. night and color vision
b. growth
c. DNA synthesis
d. Immune system function
c. DNA synthesis
e4:Blood-thinning medications, such as Coumadin, inhibit the activity of
Vitamin K
e4: _____ is a conditionally essential vitamin whose precursor is_____
Vitamin D, cholesterol
e4: some drugs used to treat cancer inhibit the activity of _______ thereby inhibiting cancer cell division
e4: Vit B12 functions in which of the following ways?
a. DNA synthesis
b. maintains folate in its active form
c. protects the myelin sheath around nerves.
d. b and c
b and c
e4: The compartment that contains most of the water in the body is
e4:Osmotic pressure is exerted in the body by
Proteins and minerals
Which of the following statements is false about iron?
a. People most at risk for iron deficiency anemia are young children, women of childbearing age, and adolescents.
b. iron is necessary for energy production
c. an iron-deficient indivi
c. is false
e4: which of the following statement about iodide is true?
a. deficiency in a pregnant woman increases the risk of bearing an infant with cretinism
b. it is necessary for hemoglobin synthesis
c. it is necessary for thyroid hormone synthese
A and C are true
e4: Normally, absorption of excess iron doesn't occur due to the sequestration of iron in _______, in intestinal cells until it can be taken up by ____, and transported to cells
ferritin, transferrin

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