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Lit Terms Period 5


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Petrarchan Sonnet
Same as Italian Sonnet. Contains an octave with an abbaabba ryhme scheme, and an ending sestet with a cdecde or edcedc scheme.

Examples: Divina Commedia by Longfellow, My Gallery by Wyatt
A fairly short narrative poem written in a songlike stanza form.
Examples: "Ballad of Birmingham"
a repeated word, phrase, line, or group of lines normally at some fixed position in a poem written in stanzaic form.

Ex: In a song, the lyrics are often in this form:
The repetition at close intervals of the final consonant sounds of accented syllables of important words (EX: struts and frets or short and sweet or stroke of luck)
Blank Verse
Unrhymed iambic pentameter
What term decribes a narrative descirption having a second meaning beneath the surface one?
Phonetic Intensive
A word whose sound suggests it's meaning. Similar to onomatopoeia, but phonetic intensives do not always refer to sounds.

Examples: glimmer, glossy, glare, glitter
an exageration or overstatement

Ex: I'm so hungry I could eat a horse.
He is as big as a house.
A smooth, pleasant-sounding choice and arrangement of sounds. Uses many good, long vowels. Remember because of prefix eu, meaning good, as in euphoria or utopia, and root phony meaning sound, such as a phone ringing.
A situation or use of language, involving some kind of incongruity or discrepancy. There are three basic types of irony: verbal, dramatic,situational.
Internal Rhyme
rhyming within a line

Ex: I awoke to black flak.
Prose meaning
The part of a poem's total meaning that can be separated out and expressed through paraphrase.

See page 142 of the all-knowing Perrine book.
the use of words that supposedly mimic their meaning in their sound.

Ex: Boom, pluck, hiss...
A harsh, discordant, unpleasant-sounding choice and arrangement of sounds.
Dramatic Irony
Irony, which occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the literary work.
Ex: Horror movies where the audience tries to tell the character not to go into a room because something bad is within it, but the character doesn't know and continues onward.
Continuous form
The form of a poem in which the lines follow eachother without formal grouping, the only breaks being dictated by units of meaning
The repetition of the same letter at the beginning of two or more words immediately succeeding each other, or at short intervals.
any wavelike recurrence of motion or sound

Ex: Lyrics to songs can often be looked at as poems and when reading them you can notice a distinct musical tempo to them, this is rhythm. You can think of rhythm as the beat of a song or poem.
Figurative Language
*Language employing figures of speech; language that cannot be taken literally or only literally.

*Language using figures of speech such as simile, metaphor, hyperbole, symbolism, and personification to form imagery.
A speech pause occuring within a line. See also: Grammatical Pause and Rhetorical Pause
Two successive lines, usually in the same meter, linked by rhyme
What a word suggests beyond its basic definition; a word's overtones of meaning.
a metrical pattern of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable.

Ex: Whose words|these are|I think|I know|
Verbal Irony
A figure of speech in which what is meant is the opposite of what is said. This is commonly confused with sarcasm and satire, but verbal irony has no harmful intentions behind it, whereas sarcasm and satire are purposefully hurtful.

Example: A teacher says to his students,"Bad news- you all got As and Bs on that test."
Definition: The regular patterns of accent that underlie metrical verse; the measurable repetition of accented and unaccented sylables in poetry.(pg 189)The identifying charactoristic of rhythmic language that you can tap your foot to.
A reference to something supposed to be known, but not explicitly mentioned; a covert indication; indirect reference; a hint.
Prose Poem
Usually a short composition having the intentions of poetry but written in prose form rather than verse. There are usually no line breaks, sustained intensity, and a patterned structure.

See page 189 of Perrine.
End Rhyme
Rhyme in which the rhyming words occur at the ends of lines.

Ex: My weekend was like any other,
I went to a movie with Mother.
A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used in the service of truth.

-Very similar to hyperbole

ex: I'll die if I don't pass this course
Presentation of one sense experience in terms usually associated with another sensation.
A metrical foot composed of two short syllables followed by one long one, as in the word anapest itself.
A metrical foot consisting of one accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables (EX: mer-ri-ly or mul-ti-ple)
The dictionary meaning of a word.
Paradoxical Situation
A situation containing apparently but not actually incompatable elements

Ex: 1. The celebration of a fifth birthday anniversary by a twenty-year old man is paradoxical but explainable if the man was born on February 29.

2."Aesop tells the tale of a traveler who sought refuge with a Satyr on a bitter winter night. On entering the Satyr's lodging , he blew on his fingers, and was asked by the Satyr why he did it. "To warm them up," he explained. Later, on being served a piping-hot bowl of porridge, he blew also on it, and again was aksed why he did it. "To cool it off," he explained. The Satyr thereupon thrust him out of doors, for he would have nothing to do with a man who could blow hot and cold with the same breath."
The external pattern or shape of a poem, descriabable without reference to its content, as continuous form, stanzaic form, fixed form (and their variables, free verse, and syllabic verse.
Form appeals to the human instinct of design.
Ex: If a poem is in a usual form it may create a sense of monotony but it is in a varied form it could create a feeling of excitement. If too much variation is used it could make the reader tired or frustrated.
Dactylic Meter
A meter in which a majority of the feet are dactyls.
Expected Rhythm
The rhythmic expectations set up by the basic meter of a poem. When a poem follows the meter rhythm.
A group of words in a literary work which appeal to one or more of the senses

Ex: (From T.S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock")When the evening is spread out against the sky like a patient etherized upon a table.
Didactic poetry
poetry whose primary purpose is to teach or preach
Duple Meter
Poetry consisting of two syllables per line.

Ex:Thus I
Passe by,
And die:
As One,
And go.
Anapestic Meter.
A meter in which a majority of the feet are anapests.
Rhetorical Pause
similar to a caesura; a natural pause, unmarked by punctuation, introduced into the reading of a line by its phrasing and syntax

Ex: Preachers use them a lot to emphasize their points and to get people's attention by stopping and adding breaks into their sermons at all different times, not necessarily at the end of a sentence.
A metrical line containing two feet.
A six-line stanza. Any poem that has six-lined stanzas. This is usually used with an Italian sonnet.
A restatement of teh content of a poem designed to make its prose meaning as clear as possible.
A compact paradox in which two sucessive words seemingly contradict each other.
A four line stanza, or division of poetry, marked off either by it's ryhme scheme or by a physical division on the page. The ryhme scheme is often abab.

Whose woods these are I think I know,
His house is in the village though.
He will not see me stopping here,
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
Iambic Pentameter
an unrhymed line of five feet in which the dominant accent usually falls on the second syllable
A statement or situation containing apparantly contradictory elements.
A comparison using like or as: "AP Lit period five is like a bunch of monkeys that were left to sit in the sun for too long"
Figures of Speech
*Any way of saying something other than the ordinary way; a way of saying one thing and meaning another

*Often used and crafted for emphasis or freshness of expression

Ex: "Echoed the hills" to mean "The hills eched"
A three-line stanza exhibited in terza rima (intelocking rhyming scheme like aba or cdc) and villanelle as well as in other poetic forms

Example: "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night"-Dylan Thomas Pages 237-238
Double Rhyme
A rhyme in which the repeated vowel is in the second last syllable of the words involved; one form of feminine rhyme
End-Stopped Rhyme
A line ending in full pause, often indicated by punctuation such as a period or semicolon.
Ex: What? your myrtle bush wants trimming?
Oh, that rose has prior claims--
Needs it leaden vase filled brimming?
Hell dry you up with its flames!
Trochaic Foot
consists of one stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable.

Ex: Lovely
Definition: A figure of speech in which some significant aspect or detail of an experience is used to represent the whole experience. (pg 74) the use of something closly related for the thing actually meant.
Example: Robert Frost "Out, Out-" the boy holds up his cut hand "as if to keep/ the life from spilling" he means to keep the blood from spilling.
Dramatic framework.
The situation, whether actual or fictional, realistic or fanciful, in which an author places his or her characters in order to express the theme.
Fixed Form
*Any form of a poem in which the length and pattern are prescribed by previous usage or tradition.

Examples: Sonnet, Limerick, Villanelle

*any set form of a poem
Single rhyme
The same as a masculine rhyme, which involves only one syllable. Such as "support, report..." "hug, smug..."
Rhetorical Poetry
poetry using artifically eloquent language; that is, language too high-flown for its occasion and unfaithful to the full complexity of human experience

Ex: Phrases that are superficial and often trite, like "from the rocky coast of Maine to the sun-washed shores of California", "our heroic dead", and "Old Glory".
A figure of speech that consists of saying less than one means, with less force than the occasion warrants.

ex: sitting down to a big meal and saying "this looks like a nice snack."
Terza Rima
An interlocking rhyme scheme with the pattern

aba bob cdc, etc.
A 19-line poem consisting of:

5 three-line stanzas, ryhme scheme aba

concluding quatrain (4 line stanza), ryhme scheme abaa.

Lines 1 and 3 of the poem are repeated alternatingly through line 15 as a refrain, and again in lines 18 and 19.

The House on the Hill by Edward Arlington Robinson
Italian (or Petrarchan) Sonnet
A type of sonnet consisting of an octave rhyming abbaabba and of a sestet using anyh arrangement of two or three additional rhymes, such as cdcdcd or cdecde.

Laymen's Terms: Different (usually 3) types of rhymes and line lengths are combined together in a poem.

Example: Found on page 235 of Perrine.
A metrical line containing five feet.

I wake/to sleep/and take/my wak/ing slow

*Not limited to a certain stress pattern
Extended Figure (sustained figure)
A figure of speech or literary device (such as a metaphor, simile, personification, or apostrophe) sustained or developed through a considerable number of lines or through a whole poem.
Definition: Departures from the basic metrical pattern (see anacrusis, substitution, extra-metrical syllables')(pg 192)
Rhetorical Stress
in natural speech, as in prose and poetic writing, the stressing of words or syllables so as to emphasize meaning and sentence structure

Ex: This is heard alot in the speech of politicians and newscasters. Often they emphasize specific words in order to show their importance.
Situatinal irony
When the opposite of what you anticipate happens. You know the phrase "Murphy's Law"?
When you anticpate that you are going to win, and instead, you lose. "The Gift of the Magi" is another example.
Definition: A metrical line containing one foot. (pg 192)
Folk Ballad
*A narrative poem designed to be sung, composed by an anonymous author, and transmitted orally for years or generations before being written down.
(it has usually undergone modification of this transmission)

*It was in and about the Martinmas time,
When the green leaves were a falling,
That Sir JOhn Graeme, in the West Country,
Fell in love with Barbara Allan

~excerpt from "Bonny Barbara Allan
A fixed form consisting of five lines of anapestic meter, the first two trimeter, the next two dimeter, the last line trimeter, with the rhyming scheme aabba; used exclusively for humorous or nonsense verse

An epicure dining at Crewe
Found a rather large mouse in his stew.
Said the waiter,"Don't shout
And wave it about
Or the rest will be wanting one too."

"An epicure dining at Crewe" Anonymous
Page 234
Extra-metrical syllables
in metrical verse, extra unaccented syllables added at the begginings or endings. They are extra syllables that are not part of the set up meter of the poem and are added in.
Run-on line
a line which has no natural speech pause at its end, allowing sense to flow uniteruptedly into the next line.

"...With a laugh'
An oath of towns that set the wild a t naught
They bring the telephone and telegraph."
--from Robert Frost "The Line-Gang"
Free verse
Nonmetrical poetry in which the basic rhythmic unit is the line, and in which pauses, line breaks, and formal patterns develop organically from the requirements of the individual poem rather than from established poetic forms.
Free verse poetry does not follow any specific type of form or rules of poetry, it does its own thing.
Masculine (Single) Rhyme
A rhyme in which the repeated accented vowel sound is in the final syllabe of the words involved

Example: dance-pants
Attribution of personality to an impersonal thing; A figure of speech in which human attributes are given to an animal, an object, or a concept

Ex: 1. Time flies.

2. "England expects every man to do his duty." -Lord Nelson
Definition: (1) An eight-line stanza. (2) The first eight lines of a sonnet, especially one structured in the manner of an Italian sonnet [abbaabba].(pg 235)
Grammatical pause
Grammatical pause is also known as caesura. It is a paused introduced into the reading of a line by a mark of punctuation.
It is just the natural pauses that we all learned to use while reading such as stopping after a period or pausing after a comma.
Feminine Rhyme
When two or more syllables in words rhyme, usually in the second or third last syllables. Examples: Turtle: Fertile, Spitefully:Delightfully, Ceiling: Appealing, Hurrying: Currying
a kind off literature that ridicules human folly or vice with the ostensible purpose of bringing about reform or of keeping others from falling into similar folly or vice.

Example: WH Auden's "The Unknown Citizen"
*The basic unit used in the scansion or measurement of metrical verse (rhythm or flow through syllables).

*Usually contains one accented syllable and one or two unaccented syllables.

Ex: Whose woods
these are
I think
I know

(each line is a foot- unaccented, accented)
A figure of speech that is a comparison between two essentially without using like or as. An entire poem may be a comparison of one thing to another; this is referred to as an extended metaphor.

Example: "Hope is a Thing with Feathers" by Emily Dickinson is an extended metaphor comparing hope to a bird.
The writer's or speaker's attitude toward the subject, the audience, or herself or or himself; the emotional coloring, or emotional meaning, of a work. (you know what tone is, we've discussed it plenty of times)
Definition: In metrical verse, the omission of an unaccented syllable at either end of a line (pg 192)
Heard Rhythm
Th actual rhythm of a metrical poem as we hear it when it is read naturally. The heard rhythm mostly conforms to but someties departs from or modifies the expected rhythm.
It is the natural rhythm that comes to us while reading a poem. Everyone has their own unique "heard rhythm" that comes to them while reading poetry.
*A metrical line containing three feet

When here|the spring|we see
Fresh green|upon|the tree

there are three feet per line:
{foot 1- when here, foot 2- the spring, foot 3- we see}
A metrical line containing six feet.
It's pretty self-explanatory in itself. It is a line that is seperated into six "feet" and then scanned.
Bitter or cutting speech; speech intended by its speaker to give pain to the person addressed
Triple meter
A meter in which a majority of the feet contain three syllables. (Actually, if more than 25 percent the feet in a poem are triple, its effect is more triple than duple, and it ought perhaps to be referred to as trople meter.) Anapestic and dactlyic are both triple meters.
Once again, self explanatory, its is a certain piece of literature that the majority of the lines have three feet.
The process of measuring metrical verse, that is, of marking accented and unaccented syllables, dividing the lines into feet, identifying the metrical patternand noting significant variations from that pattern
Sentimental Poetry
Poetry that attempts to manipulate areader's emotions in order to achieve a greater emotional response than the poem itself really warrants.

example: Someone Should Have taught Him
from Chicken soup for the Soul

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