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NeuroSci 1


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ontogonic approach
developmental approach to understanding Brain/Behavior relationships (individual represents evolution of species) development of the human nervous system mimics evolutionary development
Evolutionary Approach
how is a structure similar of different to other species and how does this relate to differences in behavior
philosophical approaches: Mind/Body Problem
descartes: mind body probelm after disceting a human body how does eternal soul influence deterrorating structure
Neruoscientists are Materialist
the view that everything exists is physical and therefore knowable
lesion studies
damage to the brain: injury involving a brain part is a loss of that function
ESB: Electrical Stimulation of the Brain
Wilder Penfield activating electrical impulses to promote its function
Pharmologically/ knockout
inducing a chemical to see the chemical component involved in the brain functioning
Imaging Tech: PET Scan
Positron Emmission Therapy: a radio active substance is injected and detects around the brain can identify those regions with the highest radio activity (better at detecting lack of activity)
Imaging tech: MRI
magnetic resonance imaging: measures changes in plasma hemoglobin as they release oxygen can detect those brain areas with oxygen: can detect areas that are highlighted in the brain acording to cues
defined as units of heredity that maintain sturctural identity from one generation to another can know gene sequences but not functions yet genes represent expression of proteins
23 pairs in humans deoxyribonucleic acid: sugar (deoxyribo) four flavors: aderyine guanine thymine cytosine
proteins that regulate the activity of chemical reactions (-ase is always an enzyme)
phenotype v genotype
pheno: mainfestation of genetic expression geno: specifeic genes available for expression
cell body neculous genetic info
spindle threads out of soma other neurons connect here
long, carries electrical signals from the soma to the boutons
terminal boutons
specialized spot between receiving cell and fiving cell
multi polar
all directions off of soma
dedrites one side axon other
dendrite and axon come out same side
neuron doctrine
Santiago and Golgi: Santi all neurons would stain if connected, chem transmission(unitary hypothesis). neurons are unitary and comm each other across synapse. golgi: reticular hypothesis continuous transmission belief of shared membrane (cytoplasm) electrical transmission
neuroglia= nerve glue. three types asrocytes microglia oligodendrocytes(Cns)/Schwann cells(pns)
have multiple end feet some contact blood vessels some contact neurons hold neuron in place control chem environment surrounding nourishes
smallest glia cells perfrom phagocytosis principle immune system component
wrap axon in asheath of myelin, wrap multiple axons found in cns schwann: wrap only single axon cell, in pns
increase the speed of comm saltatory conduction not all neurons are myelinated myelin is destroyed in MS
BBB Blood Brain Barrier
blood vessels throughout the body are leaky capillaries in the brain have specialized structures, astrocytic \"end feet\" and capillary \"tight junctions\"
flow within a neuron is... flow between axons are...
electrical axons: chemical
(Resting)Membrane Potential
charge differential across membrane (is when at rest). charge comes from ionic concentrations
Equilibrium Potential
the membrane voltage (difference in electrical potential) between the inside and outside of neurons at this point for that ion
If the concentration gradient and the electrostatic gradient for a particular ion species are at equal strength and are pushing on opposite sides of the membrane the ions are at this
nernst equation
For any given ion you can figure out the voltage of the membrane at which the concentration gradient and the electrical gradient will be equal and opposite
Sodium Potassium Pump
moves three Na+ ions out and two K+ ions in, requires energy (ATP)
Na+ inner channel blocker (elicites subthreshold)
tetraethyl ammonium
K+ outward current blocker
Saltatory Conduction
nodes of ranvier only place for escape (last longer larger change farther away)
Synapses 3types:
axon to soma: axosomatic axon to dendrite: axodendritic axon to axon: axoaxonic
First Discovered NT
Temporal Summation v Spatial Summation
temp: one firing enough to elicite ap spatial: many imputs fire simultaneously
proteins on the cell surface that recognize specific neurotransmitters leading to postsynaptic response
law of dynamic polarization
communication goes one way dendrite, soma, axon
Excitatory postsynaptic potential: depolarization, influx of Na+ (Ca++), glutamate (acetylcholine)increases likelihood of postsynaptic firing
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential: decreases likelihood of firing, efflux of K+, hyperpolarization, GABA
ex. Dopamine, Serotonin 2nd messenger signaling, slow (no immediate change that tells you what is happening)
Ionotropic Effects (on postsynaptic neuron)
fast, uses ipsp (gaba-chloride)and epsp (glutamate-sodium), regulated by a ligand selective to one or more ions
Metabotropic Process
NT binds to receptor, g-protein breaks off, activates adenalate cyclase increased levels, activates cyclic AMP, levels activate protein Kinase A
a.p. comes in activates ca++ channels activates Ca++ sensor (synaptotagim) changes shape of V-Snare (synaptobreun) proximity to T-Snare (syntaxin)hook and bind and dump NT (exocytosis)
Snare clear away NT
1. reuptake 2. enzymatic degragation 3. diffusion
mimics effects of a NT 1. Direct- bind to receptor, produce same effect 2. Indirect-doesn\'t bind, may just block it increases effect of NT
prevents/blocks effects of a NT
the tendency for a biological process to be maintained with certain parameters
Negative Feedback
represents an ability to reduce excitability or NT release in response to overexcitability (autoreceptors)
3 Autoreceptors
1 NT decreases release (Ca++ channel blocked) 2 neruonal excitability decreases (Na+ channel blocked) 3. NT syntesis decreases
Summation Process
cumulative effects of input across dendritic tree may result in a suprathreshold membrane potential at the initial segment of athe axon
Small Molecule Transmitter: Acetylecholine (ACh)
involved in muscle contraction and regulation of the heart rate and respiration in the PNS and learning and memory in CNS does by depolarization implicated in Alzheimers Disease and Myasthenia Gravis Metabolized by acetylcholineste nicotine mimics NT in direct (Na+ ionotropic) muscanic (in shrooms) metabotropic
Small Molecule Transmitter: Norepenephrine (NE)
chemically realted to adrenaline, involved in arousal and attention, linked to activation of CNS, located in the Locus Coeruleus implicated in depresssion, metabolized by COMT and MAO
Small Molecule Transmitter: Dopamine (DA)
involved in intiation and control of voluntary movement motivation and reinfocement, located in the SUbstantia Nigra and Ventral Tegmental Area (midbrain), implicated in Parkinson\'s Disease, Schizophrenia, and Drug Addiction, L-Dopa sythetic precurser to dopamine-crosses BBB treats symptoms not disease, affects frontal lobe innervoice working memory, metabolized by COMT and MAO
Small Molecule Transmitter: Serotonin (5-HT)
regulation of mood appetitte aggression and impulse control, located in Raphe Nucleous (hindbrain), implicated in a lot of things but totally responsible for nothing- bulemia obesity depression bipolar, synthetic precurser is dietary tryptophan, SSRI\'s not associated with alot of adverse sideffects, LSD
Small Molecule Transmitter: GABA
primary inhibitory transmitter in the brain, promotes sedation, implicated in anxiety elilepsy and alcholism, too little GABA leads to seizures, benzodiazepine (ex. valium)
Small Molecule Transmitter: Glutamate
primary excitatory transmitter in brain, involved in learning and memory, implicated in epilepsy and neruotoxicity (hemmorage and stroke-due to max levels of Ca++), too much leads to seizures
Peptides: Endoenous Opiates
pain regulation, euphoric properties of heroin and morephine
Gases: Nitric Oxide
not released via synaptic vessicle, modulates response of neurons to other transmitters
CNS Depressants
disorientation impaired memory and judgment sleep death, facilitation of GABA receptor or lipid membrane, barbituates: phenobarbitol, alcohol, general anesthetic (gasses lipophilic), antianxiety agents (Diazepam)
Psychomotor Stimulants
increased arousal, psychomotor agitation, sleep disruptions, paranoi, hallucinations, and sizures, mechanisms include increased DA, cocaine, amphetamine and derivatives, caffine, nicotine, adenosine atnagonist (sleepyness, sedation)
Mood Stabalizers
Lithium- Bipolar, compliance problems don\'t want to loose manic stages
MAO inhibitors- prevents metabolism of DA NE and 5-HT, TRicyclic Anti Depressants, Atypical Antidepresants- Zoloft
Narcotic Analgesics
Produces analgesia euphoria depressed respiration and nausea, mechanism of action includes modulation of nocicepton via activation of opiate receptors and subsequent modualtion of substance P 5-HT and NE ex. Morephine and Heroin Naltrexane (for oding)
Anti psychotic Drugs
decrease psychotic symptoms but with sedation and motor side effects blockaed of DA receptors is related to both the therapeutic efficacy and side effects, 1. Traquilizers 2. Neruoleptics (1 & 2 have adverse side effects on motor) 3. Atypical Anitpsychotics
Psychedelic & Hallucinagenic Drugs
1. Anti-Cholinergic: Atropine, 2. Noradreneergic: Mescaline 3. Serotonergic: LSD, psilocybin 4. Anti- Glutamatergic: PCP, Ketanin (MDMA receptor antagonist) -affects CNS learning memory used in surgeries 5. THC marijuana
regulates basic motor functions, most primitive, first to develop in womb
medulla oblongota
respiration heart rate blood pressure
axons cross from one side of the brain to the other, location of cranial nerves, connects with thalmus so you don\'t act out your dreams
pariacquaductal Gray
involved in processing of pain stimuli and relevant learned associates
Raphe Nucleus
involved in mood aggression and impuls control and contains NT serotonin
Locus Coeruleus
makes and releases NE, transmits info from the reticular formation to the rest of the brain via NT NE
reticular formation
a network of neurons threaded throught the hindbrain that relates function to arousal and attention
Bell-Megendie Law
the entering dorsal roots of the spinal cord carry sensory info in tot he brain the exititng venural roots carry motor info to muscles and glands
translates motor sensory info into action
substantia nigra
intiation of movement, death of these in parkinson\'s
ventral tegmental area
dopamine containing neurons involved in substance abuse
inferriof and superriof colliculi visual and audtiory attention respectively (extension of thalmus)
the relay of sensory (except smell) info to and from cortex provide meaning to senses experience
basal ganglia
caudate putamen and globus pallidus initiation and control of voluntary movements (caudate aka dorsal straitum receives DA and is involved in PD degeneration linked to Huntington\'s Disease
Limbic system
motivation and emotion: hippocampus, amygdala, nucleous, accumbens, cingulate cortex
learning and memory (new) ongoing events
involved in emotional expression particularly to prior experience
Nucleous Accumbens
ventral straitum, behavioral activation and reinforcement learning receives DA and is implicated in addiction
cingulate cortex
links events to emotional behavior- frontal labotomy detect conflicts make sure youre operating according to super ordinate goals
cuts: Sagital Plane coronal plane Horizontal plane
Sag: disects into right and left corona: front and back horizon: upper and lower
an imaginary line used and drawn through the center of the CNS between the front of the forebrain and bottom of the spinal cord locals described in relation to it
stage 7: 15-17 Days
specialties develop: sensitivity to environment neural development starts
stage 10: 21-23 days
entire development of nervous system is complete
16 days
development beginning: neural plate- bunch of cells one cell thick one layer thicker towards middle, neural groove now has folded together => neural fold-> forming a tube->neural tube
24 Days
neural crest cells will make up all the nervous cells in your system neural system neural system complete now will just get bigger add more cells
Neural Tube Defects: Anencephaly Hyrdoencephaly Spina Bifida Encphealorde
Anen: Brain does not develop Hydro: water brain Spina B: spinal fluid blocks bone development Encephea: tumor in back of head (=to spina b)
founder cells
divide and lead to cells of CNS
symmetrical division
(mitosis) division of founder cells => 2 identical founder cells
asymmetrical division
division of founder cell into a founder cell and a neuron
apoptosis (falling away)
a death of a cell caused by a chemical signal that actiates a genetic mech inside the cell aka \"programmed cell death\"
Radial Glia
special glia with fibers that protrude radially from the ventrical zone out to the cortex
directly center back of you eyeball, central vision, different cells around area, veins don\'t cross it
Optic Nerve
Blind Spot
highly sensitive to light, 1 kind of photorecptor within them, only use at night/dimlight, absent at fovea
3 kinds of photorecptors provide for color vision, high concentration at fovea
receptive field
that portion of the visual field that derives the response of that cell not as high visual equity in perirphery
Object Recognition
takes place in inferior temporal cortex responses of cell in this area are \"tuned\" for complex objects: responses highest to actual objects, also face recognition very developed
Visual Agnosia
damage to particualr brain structure processing sp. type of visual processing
Apperceptive visual agnosia
inability to recognize objects
lesion to a part of the inferotemporal cortex leads to an inability to recongnize faces
inability to recognize movement
vision: Dorsal Stream Ventral Stream
Where? What?

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