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AGM test one


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What is the Delphic Oracle?
the medium by which a god reveals hidden knowledge or makes known the divine purpose OR the place where the revelation is given
Where is Delphi located?
Mt. Parnassus
How old is Delphi?
Dates from 1400 B.C. and is the most famous and powerful religious ssnctuary of ancient Greece
What is the origin of Delphi?
Zeus (king of the gods) released 2 eagles, one from where the sun rose and one from where the sun set (west and east). The eagles met at Delphi. They established Delphi as the center of the world. A stone was put there to mark the site called the omphalos.
What does omphalos mean?
It is Greek for navel.
What is "Delphys"?
Greek for "womb".
What did the oracle speak from?
She spoke from the adyton which was a crack in a rock which was also an underground chamber in the Apollo temple.
Who was the site of the oracle originally sacred to?
Gaia or mother earth.
What was the site guarded by?
the serpent Pyhto
Who killed the Pytho?
Apollo (god of truth and prophecy) killed the Pytho and made the orcale his own.
How was the orcale's words communicated?
It was uttered by a priestess of Apollo called "Pythia". Pythia was in a trance and she wore a crown of laurel on her head and sometimes she held a laurel branch. Daphne was a nymph loved by Apollo. Daphne is Greek for laurel.
What are the requirements to be a Pythia?
Must be over fifty years old, illiterate and a virgin. At the height of Delphi there were 3 Pythia.
Theories over the inducement of the Pythia's trance?
1. Sat on a tripod over the adyton
2. Chewed bitter laurel leaves conaining cyanide
3. spiritually possesed
4. Sat on the tripod over the stinky rotting corpse of the Pytho
5. She sipped undiluted wine (diluted wine 1:12, 1 part wine to 12 parts water)
Where did the Pythia bathe?
In the Castalian fountain, they also drank this holy water.
What were the requirements to ask the Pythia a question?
Must be male, sacrifice a sheep or goat to Apollo, wear a woolen fillet (headband or sweatband), carry a laurel branch, and give an offering (gold cup or jewlery)
How do you ask the question?
you hand the question to the priest who then asks the Pythia. The Pythia then says her utterances whih are written down by the priest and handed to the questioner.
How are the Pythia's utterances said?
verse form
Who was the most famous of all oracles?
Oedipus, he wanted to know about his future. The Pythia said that he was going to kill his father and marry his mom (Patricide).
What is the windin path on the way to Delphi called?
The sacred way. For centuries Delphi was the total authority on all matters.
What was along the sacred way?
treasuries dedictaed to Apollo
What were the Pythian games?
At the top of the mtn. they were held every 4 years and the winners received a crown of laurel.
What was the cause of Delphi's decline?
It eventually lost its power and influence b/c of
1. Stealing from the treasuries
2. Bribing the priests/ Pythias
3. Desecrating the site and temples
The last oracle was 4th century A.D.
What does the term Mythology mean?
From ancient Greek "mythos" (story) and "logos" (speech) it means the telling of stories
How do myths develop?
1. Justification of society
2. Explanation of why? how?
Attempt to understand and power of control
timeless past
often serious
supernatural godds/beings
ex: Homer's Ilian and Odyssey
clever, tricky heroes
anthropomorphic animals( talking animals)
Entertainment in the main purpose
ex: Three little pigs, Peter rabbit, Paul Bunyan
Based on fact
Refer to a historical person, place or event
ex: Johhny Appleseed, King arthur, Robin Hood, Lady Godiva
narrative of adventures
involves wizards, gobblins and fairies
made up story, designed to mislead
Everyone is either beautiful or hideous
ex: Snow white, Peter Pan, Cinderella
Why study AGM?
1. Understand classical Greek literature and writers
2. Comprehend A.G. society
3. Protoype of modern litertaure
4. Psychology was archetypical (model or pattern) concepts rooted in AGM
5. Myths appear in language both written and spoken
6. Science uses the myths in its terms
7. Music and dance use the myths (ballet, operas)
8. Myths are used in ads (midas, ajax, FTD)
9. Myths are used on stamps and coins
10. Myths are fun and entertaining, exciting and intersting
Oedipus complex
Male in love with your mother
Elektra complex
female and want dad all to herself
From Phobus, god of fear
fear of death or going to hell
fear of heaven or angels
Fear of clowns
fear of spiders
women who have abnormal sex drives
men who have abnorma sex drives (saty half men half goat tryng to get women drunk and have sex with them)
Other roots of psychology from AGM
hypnosis and psyche/psychology
Think someone is in love with you when you don't even know them
What science terms are from myths?
Cupids bow
Achilles tendon
Constellations (Orion's Belt)
Galaxies (Andromeda)
Spacecraft (Apollo)
Concepts of AGM
1. Personification
2. Sexuality
3. Hubris
4. Nemesis
5. Sacrifice
6. Sacrilege
Human characteristics of the gods ex: Zeus seducing women
AG society was heterosexual, homo, bi, beastiality, incest, tranvestites
ex: Achilles dresses like a woman to avoid the Trojan war
Excessive pride, usualy followed by a downfall (tragic flaw)
ex: Tantalos tested the gods by feeding them his son in a stew
Concept of retribution (orient or origin (karma))
Goddess Nemesis:she follows evil doers and makes sure they are punished ex:Aganemnon slits his daughter's throat for a wind to sail to Troy. On his return he is murdered by his wife.
Human and or animal
sheep, goat, ox
young virgin girl
To please the gods ex: Iphigenia had throat slit by father Aganemnon
Crime of stealing, desecrating, or defying that which is sacred
ex: Delphic oracle: stealing from the treasuries, bribing the Pythia or Priest, raping the Pythia
Creation of the world according to AGM (sources)
Hesiod: 8th century B.C. Greek Poet wrote Theogany geneology of the Gods
Homer: 9th century B.C. greek poet. He often differs form Hesiod
Origin of Creation One
mass confusion, no shape, infinite abyss, before Gods appear
Origin of creation Two
appeared, had a shape, personified by Gaea
O of C Three
appeared, lowest part of the underworld, place of eternal torture and punishment
O of C Four
appeared, desire or attraction, brought order to the chaos and brought beauty (later became Cupid)
Children created by Chaos
Erebos- darkness
Nyx- balck night (female)
Parthenogenesis: reproduction without the opposite sex
Erebos and Nyx's Kids
Ether- brightness/ light (male)
Hemera- day (female)
Born out of Nyx
Theme: incest of brother and sister
Gaea's Kids
Ouranos- heaven (personifies by Father Heaven, roman name Urnaus)
Ourea- the mountains
Pontos: the sea
Parthenogenetic: sons without a father
Gaea and Ouranos's Kids
Theme: Incest btwn. Mom and son
Titans (first set): 12 enormous, powerful monsters
Youngest is Cronos- personified as Father Time. roman name is Saturn.
Cyclopes (second set): 3 gigantic one eyes monsters, made thunder and lightening
Hecatoncheires (third set): 3 huge, horrible moster sons, had 100 heads and 50 hands each, were hated by Ouranos and he stuffs them back into Gaea.
What happened when Ouranos stuffed the Hecatoncheries back into Gaea?
Gaea asked all her children for help in overthrowing their father Ouranos. the yougest and bravest Titan Cronos helped her. Gaea made a sicle, gave it to Cronos and he castrated Ouranos.
What did Ouranos's blood create?
1. Furies: 3 females with serpents for hair and tears of blood, also had wings. They persued and punished sinners.
2. Giants: Males, fierce fighter monsters and their bodies ended in serpents tails. they wore shiny armor and carried long spheres.
What did Ouranos's genitals create?
They fell through the sky and into the sea. The Goddess Aphrodite was born from the foam. She is the Goddess of love and beauty and "apros" is greek for "foam". Her Roman name is Venus.
What happens after Ouranos is castrated?
he disappears from AGM and Cronos now rules the Earth.
Who does Cronos marry?
He marries his sister an Titaness named Rhea
What does Gaea warn Cronos about?
She told him that one of his children will dethrone him
What does Crono do when he hears the prediction?
He swallows the first of his 5 children.
1. Hestia: Goddess of the Hearth (fireplace)
2. Demeter: Goddess of Harvest
3. Hera: Goddess of marriage, Zeus's wife
4. Hades: God of the underworld
5. poseidon: God of the sea
How does Rhea trick Cronos?
She gave him a stone wrapped in a blamket and says that it is their sixth child. The stone is the Umphalos. She then hid the baby Zeus in a cave on Crete.
What happened to Zeus?
He reached manhood in a few days and when he returned home Rhea made him a cup bearer. In the cup is a mixture of mustard, wine and salt which he gives to his dad Cronos. Cronos drinks it and throws up all five children all grown up.
What happened when the children were thrown back up?
The ten year battle called "Titanomachy" or Cronos's war.
Who was on whos side during the Titanomachy?
Zeus's allies:
Hades, Hestia, Hera, Poseidon, 3 cyclopes. Released Hecatoncheiries.
Cronos's Allies:
Titans and the Giants
What happened after the war?
It nearly destroyed the Universe, and Zeus won. Cronos disappears from AGM. Zeus enters his kingdom on Mt. Oylmpus. Cosmos (the universe) was formed.
What did the cyclopes give Zeus?
thunder and lightning which became his symbols.
Significance of Creation
1. Words
2. Power structure changed in creation
Cthonic- "of the Earth"
From inside Gaea: Pytho, Sickle, Hecatoncheiries, Titans and Cyclops
Celestial "of the sky"
Ouranos and Aphrodite
Power structure changed in creation
1. From nature (gaea, Ouranos) centered to a more human centered (olympic Gods)mythology
2. Changed from female powered myths (Gaea) to male dominated myths (Zeus)
Patriarchial superstructure ( comes from the male ). Today it is still patriarchial.
Son of the Titan Iapetus and the Titanness Clymene ( Incest btwn. bro and sis). His brother was Atlas. His name means "forethought".he fought on Zeus's side during the war because he know he would win. First champion of man.
Punished by Zeus because he fought on cronos's side during the war. He was condemned to Tartaros. he had to bear the weight of the pillars pf heaven.
Prometheus Created Man
he made man from clay. the goddess Athena breathed life into the clay figure.
secod version: Epimetheus (name means "afterthought") Permetheus's brother created man and animals out of clay. he gave all the best gifts to animals with nothing left for man. he went to Permetheis for help where he decided to make man walk upright (different from the animals but like the Gods).
Prometheus helped man obtain the best food
he wrapped the bones of an ox in fat. he then took a second bundle and hid the meat in the stomach/ entrails. Prometheus asks Zeus to choose and he choooses the first bundle. This leaves the best part for man (the meat). In real life the gods for a sacrifice got bones and fat, man sacrfice got meat.
Prometheus stole fire for man
from the sun, hid ember of the sun in fennel stalk, showed man how to blow on the ember to get a flame.
Prometheus showed man how to do things
use fire, hunt beasts, make tools, and forge metals. as a result Zeus is furious.
What did Zeus do to get back at Permetheus?
He ordered Hephaistos (Blacksmith God) to make a woman out of clay. he then asked all the gods to give the woman gifts. Zeus sent Pandora to Promitheus but he suspected something and did not take her. Zeus then sent Pandora to Epimethius. His brother warned him about her but he accepted her anyway.
What gifts did Pandora recieve?
incredible beauty, slver veils, gold crowns and made her irresistible. Her name means "gifts of all". She was was also given a dowry box which she was told never to open.
What happened when Pandora opened the box?
She had great curiosity and when she opened the box all of the evils of the world came out except for Hope.
What happened to Promethius?
He was punished by zeus by being taken to the Caucasus Mts. In Russia btwn the Black and caspian sea where he was chained to a rock. During the day an eagle would eat at his liver and at night his liver would heal.
What was the reason for promethius's punishment?
He helped man too much, and he knew a secret about Zeus.
What was the secret Prometheus knew about Zeus?
That one of Zeus's son's would destroy him. But he wouldn't tell who the mother was.
Who rescued Prometheus?
Herakles (roman Hercules) by shooting the eagle/ vulture and cutting the chains. prometheus then tells Zeus that Thetis (sea nymph) will have a son that will overthrow him. Son would be Achilles. Zeus forgives him.
Why does Zeus cause a flood?
because he is still mad so he creates a flood to wipe out mankind. It rained for 9 days and nights with Poseidon's help.
because Promethius knew about the flood what did he do?
He warned his son Deucalionand his wife Pyrrha. So, they built a chest and filled it with provisions and hid inside. they floated until they reached the only dry land which was Mt. Parnassus where Delphi is.
What happened once they reached land after the flood?
They got out and Zeus finally pitied them and recalled the storm. they were the only living thing left in the world.
What voice did Deucaliom and Pyrrha hear?
It said "Re-people the Earth with the bones of your mother." They thought the earth means Gaea and the Earth means stones.
Olympic God Zeus
Roman name Jupiter. Son of Cronos and Rhea. Version 1 of what happened: he was nourished from the horn of a goat named Alamthea. Version two: Amarthea was a nymph who owned a goat that has a horn that she could use to nourish the baby. Engish "horn of plenty" = cornucopia.
How did Zeus divide the hemisphere?
Hades : underworld
Poseidon: sea, waters
Zeus: Heavens and everything else. Zeus lives on Mt. olympus.
Story of Zeus
his power was greater than all the gods combined. Homer says about Zeus that Hera was his first wife (incest) his sister. He was always unfaithful to Hera. he had 115 mistresses while married to Hera and 140 offspring.
Zeus's Functions
God of marriage, god of the sky and weather, Homer calls him the "cloud gatherer", highest civic god ( highest god in the city, considered a father god.
Zeus's symbols
Thunder bolt a gift from the Cyclopes, eagle, oak tree, holds a sceptor (staff), wears aegis (breast plate that was impenetrable made from Almatheas hide)
Most famous sanctuary: dodona, Northern Dodona there was an oracle that existed in an oak tree. Thought to be the voice of Zeus. Deucalion built his chest from this oak grove. Planet Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system.

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