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Heart location
-Thorax, mediastinum; left of midline.
-Function: self-adjusting muscular double pump; both pumps are concerted.
-Apex points down
-Base points up
Covers the heart; has two layers:
Fibrous Pericardium
Outer layer of the heart covering
Serous Pericardium
Inner layer of the heart covering; in contact w/ epicardium.
Heart layers
external heart layer; continuous with the serous pericardium
-superficial to myocardium
MUSCLE layer of the heart; contains blood vessels and nerves.
inner layer of the heart tissue.

continuous with epithelial layers of attached vessels (great arteries/veins)
Heart Chambers
-Right Atrium
-Right Ventricle
-Left Atrium
-Left Ventricle
Right Atrium input/output
input: from superior/inferior vena cava
output: to right ventricle via right AV valve (tricuspid)
Right Ventrical Input/Output
Input: Right atrium via AV valve
Output: to pulmonary trunk, via the pulmonary semilunar valve
left atrium input/output
input: pulmonary veins carrying oxygenated blood
output: left ventricle via the left AV valve, tricuspid.
Left ventricle input/output
input: left atrium via left AV valve.
output: aorta to the arch.
Great Vessels
Superior/inferior vena cava
Pulmonary Artery
Pulmonary Veins (4)
Heart Valves
Right AV - tricuspid
Left AV - bicuspid
Pulmonary Semilunar
Aortic Semilunar
Mitral Valve
aka, Bicuspid right av valve
Valve function
to prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles/valves, but allow it to flow into the intended chamber.
Bicuspid valve
Left AV
-3x as thick as right, for strength to push blood through circulation.
Function of chordae tendinae and papillary muscles
when blood fills ventricles it pushes back on the AV valve; papillary muscles tense to prevent the AV valve from opening into the ATRIUM and allow blood to flow back. kind've like a parachute behind a drag-racing car.
period of ventricular relaxtion as blood flows from atria to ventricles;
when the AV valves slam shut and ventricular contraction begins to push blood out pulmonary and atrial semilunar valves.
Heart Septa
interatrial septum
connective tissue that seperates the left/right atria
interventricular septum
division between the ventricles.
Heart Sulci
Coronary Sulcus
superficial line that divides the atria from the ventricles. a "deep groove, boundary." vessels run within
interventricular sulcus

deep groove/boundary dividing the ventricles from a superficial view.
Trabeculae carnae
muscles within the ventricular walls.
papillary muscles
attach to the ventricular walls; yank on chordae tendinae during ventricular contraction.
chordae tendinae
HEARTSTRINGS; attach to papillar muscles; passively restrain the valves so that when closed they won't blow open by blood trying to reenter atria
Fossa ovalis
an opening in fetal life between the atria; allows blood to bypass pulmonary circulation.
Ligamentum arteriosum
remnant of a fetal vessel; attaches the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch
Coronary Circulation
supplies blood to the muscle tissue of the heart.
Coronary arteries
originate within aortic sinus, at base of ascending aorta; first branches, the best blood, highest blood pressure.
Emerge from the aortic arch as its first branches
left coronary artery
emerges from left aorta (of patient)
-runs within left coronary sulcus

Branch: LAD, anterior interventricular artery
left anterior descending artery
-branch of left coronary artery
-runs within the interventricular sulcus; aka,
anterior interventricular artery
circumflex artery
-branch of left common carotid;
-runs within the coronary sulcus, then descends on posterior left side of heart.
right coronary artery
emerges from right aorta side
-runs within right coronary sulcus
-posterior interventricular artery
-marginal artery
posterior interventricular artery
branch (after marginal) of right coronary artery;
-runs within interventricular sulcus of heart.
aka, posterior descending artery (as opposed to LAD)
marginal artery
branch of right coronary artery
-runs down right side of heart around apex.
Veins of the heart
-great cardiac vein
-middle cardiac vein
-coronary sinus
great cardiac vein
runs within interventricular sulcus with LAD artery; returns blood to the coronary sinus
middle cardiac vein
runs with posterior interventricular artery in interventricular sulcus;
returns blood to coronary sinus
coronary sinus
recieves blood from the great and middle cardiac veins (they actually join and become the sinus), returns to the right atrium. opens into right atrium just below fossa ovalis.

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