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anatomy 101


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hyaline cartilage
appears glassy; the fibres are collagenic. They provide support with flexibility and resiliance.
cartilage growth
cartilages grow from within and by addition of new cartilage tissue at the periphery.
mechanical digestion
takes place in the stomach
medulla oblongata
controls heart rate, blood vessel diameter, respiratory rate, vomitting, coughing etc
the adrenal glands
sit atop the kidneys.
reticular formation
helps regulate skeletal and visceral muscle activity
the ovaries
located in the pelvic cavity release estrogens and progesterone
proper balance and posture and smooth coordinated skeletal muscle movements.
the bronchial tree
the right and left main bronchi run into their respective lungs, within which they continue to subdivide into amaller and smaller passageways.
the neurotransmitter of somatic motor neurons, is stimulatory to skeletal muscle fibres. Neurotransmitters released by autonomic motor neurons may cause excitation or inhibition.
the penis
largely erectile tissue. ( corpus spongiosum and corpora cavernosa)
muscle contraction
the generation of force (tension) by the myosin cross bridges. Shortening of the muscle may or may not occur.
the pharynx
extends from the base of the skull to the level of C6. the nasopharynx is an air conduit; the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx are common passageways for food and air. pairs of tonsils are found in the oropharynx and nasopharynx.
first class lever system
load fulcrum effort
coronary circulation
the right and left coronary arteries branch from the aorta and via their main branches supply the heart itself. venous blood collected by the cardiac veins is emptied into the coronary sinus.
controls respiratory rate and depth
the adrenal glands
produce: mineralocorticoids
(regulate ion reabsorption)
glucocorticoids (increases blood glucose)
gonadocorticoids (mainly androgens)
parasympathetic division
conserves body energy and maintains body activities at basal level.
the vagina
extends from the uterus to the exterior.
parasympatheic effects
pupillary constriction, glandular secretion, increased digestive tract mobility, and smooth muscle activity leading to elimination of feces and urine.
the right heart
pulmonary circuit pump. Oxygen-poor blood enters the right atrium, passes into the right ventricle, through the pulmonary trunk to the lungs, and back to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins
sympathetic division
activates the body under conditions of emergency - the fight or flight system.
the adrenal glands
produces catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) enhances or prolongs the fight or flight response
sympathetic responses
dilated pupils, increased heart and respiratory rates, increased blood pressure, dilation of the bronchioles in the lungs, increased blood glucose levels, sweating. during exercise - vasoconstriction shunts blood from the skin and digestion viscera to the heart ,brain, and skeletal muscles.
the terminal bronchioles
lead into respiratory zone structures ; alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and finally alveoli where gas exchange occurs.
action potential
set up when accetylcholine released by a nerve ending binds to ACh receptors on the sarcolemma, causing changes in membrane permeability that allow ion flows that depolarize and then repolarize the membrane.
the lymphatic system
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphoid organs and tissues make up this system.
the sliding filament theory
the thin filaments are pulled toward the sarcomere centers by cross bridge (myosin head) activity of the thick filaments.
structure of blood vessel walls
all blood vessels (except capillaries) have 3 layers: tunica interna, tunica media, and tunica adventia. (capillary walls are composed of the tunica interna only)
cerebral hemispheres
localizes and interprets sensory inputs, contols voluntary and skilled skeletal muscle activity, functions in intellectual and emotional processing
regulate blood flow into capillary beds
produced by a hair follicle; consists of heavily keratinized cells. has a central medulla, a cortex and a cuticle. has a bulb a root and a shaft.
transport blood away from the heart
the correct sequence of levels forming the structural hierachy
chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
internal kidneys
a superficial cortex
a deeper medulla
a medial pelvis
epithelial membranes
simple organs consisting of an epithelium bound to an underlying connective tissue layer: include mucosae, serosae and the cutaneous membrane
elastic arteries
large arteries close to the heart, expand and recoil to accomodate changing blood volume.
second class lever system
fulcrum load effort
most functional during youth.
cartilage exits as
elastic cartilage
have comparitively larger lumens than arteries, and a system of valves that prevent backflow of blood.
2 organ systems that bear the major responsibility for ensuring homeostasis of the internal environment
the nervous system and the endocrine system
muscular arteries
carry blood to specific organs
the structural and functional unit of life
a cell
the vas deferens
extends from the epididymis to the urethra. propels sperm into the urethra by perstlsis during ejaculation. it's terminus fuses with the duct of the seminal vesicle forming the ejaculatory duct.
immobilize a bone or a muscle's origin
the small intestine
extends from the pyloric sphincter to the illeocecal valve. it's 3 subdivisions are the duodenum, jujunum, and ileum. the common bile duct and pancreatic duct.
the nervous system
is responsible for maintaining body homeostasis. It's cheif functions are to monitor, integrate, and respond to information in the environment.
thyro-tropin-releasing hormone
stimulates the release of TSH
dorsal body cavity
contains the brain and spinal cord
is surrounded by the bony skull and vertebral column
the structural and functional units of the kidney
motor (efferent) division
conveys impulses from the cns
endocrine organ
ductless, well-vascularized glands that release hormones directly into the blood or lymph. they are small and widely seperated in the body.
pivot joints
only allows for uniaxial rotation of one bone around it's own long axis.
fallopian (uterine) tubes
extends from near the ovary to the uterus. moves ovulated oocytes to the uterus.
condyloid joints
permits all angular motions i.e; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction. e.g the radiocarpal joints and the metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints
urinary bladder
stores urine. lies posterior to the pubic symphysis. has 2 inlets (ureters) and 1 outlet (urethra)
movement of a limb away from the midline
digestion activities
propulsion (movement of food through the tract)
mechanical digestion (physical mixing and breakdown of foods)
chemical digestion (enzymatic breakdown)
absorption (transport of digested products to the blood)
elimination (feces)
fibrous joints
occur where bones are connected by fibrous tissue; no joint cavity; nearly all fibrous joints are synarthrotic.
carry blood to tissue cells and are the sites of exchange
lifting a body part superiorly
involves displacement of the articular surfaces of bones
the larynx
(voice box)
contains vocal cords. provides an airway and serves as a switching mechanism to route food and air into the proper channels.
ventral body cavity
includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
contains the heart, lungs, and digestive organs
nerve supply to the kidneys
derived from the renal plexus
central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord
the uterus
has a fundus, a body, and cervix. supported by the broad, lateral cervical and uterosacral and round ligaments.
elastic cartilage
contain abundant elastic fibres, in addition to collagenic fibres and are more flexible than hyaline. they support the outer ear and the epiglottis.
the pancreas
between the spleen and the small intestine. it's exocrine product, pancreatic juice is carried to the duodenum via the pancreatic duct.
receptive sites that conduct signals from other neurons toward the nerve cell body.
the uterine wall
composed of the outer perimetrium
the myometrium
and the inner endometrium.
skeletal cartilage
exhibits chrondocytes housed in lucunae (cavities) within the extracellular matrix. contains large amounts of water, lacks nerve fibres, is avascular,and is surrounded by a fibrous perichondrium that resists expansion.
other hormone producing structures
the heart
G.I tract organs
the placenta
the kidneys
and adipose tissue
hinge joints
resembles that of a mechanical hinge. permits flexion and extension only. e.g elbow, interphalangeal joints.
heart valves
the atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and bicuspid valves) prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles are contracting; the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves prevent backflow into the ventricles when they are relaxing.
a bundle of fibres in the CNS
respiration phases
external respiration
internal respiration
transport of respiratory gases in the blood.
connective tissue functions
involve stretching or tearing of joint ligaments
generates and conducts nerve impulses away from the nerve cell body
the thyroid gland
located in the anterior throat. releases thyroid hormones which increase the rate of cellular metabolism.
sebaceous glands
occur all over the body except palms and soles of feet. simple alveolar glands; their oily secretion is called sebum. their ducts usually empty into hair follicles.
types of synovial joints
plane joints
hinge joints
pivot joints
condyloid joints
saddle joints
ball and socket joints
bone consist of
a hard, collagen-containing matrix embedded with calcium salts
when you touch your thumb to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand.
the vertebral column
includes 24 moveable vertebrae (7 cervical,12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar) and the sacrum and coccyx.
structure of the nose
the external nose is shaped by bone and cartilage plates. the nasal cavity which opens to the exterior is divided by the nasal septum. paranasal sinuses and naso lacrimal ducts drain into the nasal cavities.
the skull
formed by 22 bones. The cranium forms the vault and base of the skull. the facial skeleton provides openings for the respiratory and digestive passages.
the stomach
lies in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen. major regions are the cardia, fundus, body and pyloric region.
cardiac muscle
forms the walls of the heart; pumps blood; cells are branched and striated.
the scrotum
contains the testes. provides a slightly lower temperature than that of the body which is required for viable sperm production.
a degenerative condition most common in the aged.
conveys urine from the bladder to the body exterior. has an internal sphincter at the bladder and an external sphincter at the urogenital diaphragm.
the first 7 rib pairs are called true ribs.
the rest are called false ribs.
ribs 11 and 12 are floating ribs.
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
promotes normal development and activity of the thyroid gland
terminal ends of axons
release neurotransmitters
external female genetalia
collectively the vulva; mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, urethral and vaginal orifaces.
cartiligenous joints
the bones are united by cartilage; no joint cavity.
contractile elements that occupy most of the cell volume. Their banded appearance results from a regular alternation of dark (a) and light (i) bands. They are chains of sarcomeres.
a subcutaneous tissue on which the dermis rests.
the trachea
extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi. it is reinforced by C-shaped cartilage rings. it's mucosa is ciliated.
lifting the foot so that it's superior surface approaches the shin
released by beta cells (the pancreas) when there is high blood glucose levels. increases the rate of glucose uptake and metabolism by most cells
the skin / integument is composed of
an outer epidermis
a deeper dermis
the mammary glands
lie over the pectoral muscles of the chest and are surrounded by adipose and fibrous connective tissue. each mammary gland consists of many lobules which contain milk-producing alveloi.
depressing the foot and pointing the toes
the epididymis
hugs the external surface of the testis and serves as a site for sperm maturation and storage.
increases the angle between the articulating bones - straightening movement.
released by alpha cells (the pancreas) when blood glucose levels are low - stimulates the liver to release glucose to the blood
the pectoral (shoulder) girdle
consists of 1 clavicle and 1 scapula.
attaches the upper limbs to the axial skeleton.
lymphatic vessels
lymphatic capillaries, collecting vessels, trunks and ducts - fluid flows only toward the heart.
blood consists of
blood cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)
autonomic (involuntary) system
innervates smooth and cardiac muscles and glands
emptying of the bladder
sweat glands
the nose
provises an airway for respiration, warms, moistens, and cleanses incoming air, and houses the olefactory receptors.
layers of the epidermis
from deep to superficial:
basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum and corneum.
function of the reproductive system
to produce offspring. the gonads produce sperm or ova and sex hormones.
joint inflammation or degeneration accompanied by stiffness, pain and swelling.
the testes
each tetis is divided into many lobules each containing sperm producing seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells that produce androgens.
epidermis consists of
a keritinized sheet of stratified sqaumos epithelium. Most epidermal cells are keritinocytes in the deepest epidermal layers are melanocytes, markel cells and langerhan's cells.
takes place in the small intestine
movements allowed by synovial joints
nonaxial movement
uniaxial movement
biaxial movemet
multiaxial movement
the pineal gland
located in the diencephalon produses melatonin which influences daily rythms
thigh/knee/leg/foot bones
tibia and fibula
the thymus
located in the upper thorax
important to the normal development of the immune response
bursae are fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid.
allows adjacent structures to move smoothly over one another.
lymphatic system functions
returns fluids that have leaked from the blood vascular system back to the blood. Protects the body by removing foreign material from the lymph stream, and provides a site for immune surveillance.
a bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint and brings the articulating bones closer together.
location of kidneys
in the superior lumbar region
types of cartiligenous joints
the gallbladder
a muscular sac that lies beneath the right liver lobe, stores and concentrates bile.
synovial joints
all have a joint cavity enclosed by a fibrous capsule lined with a synovial membrane and reinforced by ligaments. articulating bone ends covered in articular cartilage and synovial fluid in the joint cavity.
major endocrine organs
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal, and thymus glands, as well as the pancreas and gonads. the hypothalamus is a neuro-endocrine organ.
types of fibrous joints
lymphatic capillaries
very permeable, admitting proteins and matter from the interstitial space.
types of joints
the lungs
organs of gas exchange. in the thoracic cavity. each lung is in it's own pleural cavity. the right lung has 3 lobes while the left lung has 2 lobes.
skin appendages include:
hair follicles
glands (sweat and sebaceous)
produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland in response to rising blood calcium levels, depresses blood calcium levels by inhibiting bone matrix resorption and enhancing calcium deposit in bone.
sites where bones meet.
their functions are to hold bones together and to allow various degrees of skeletal movement.
coverings of the kidney
a renal capsule, an adipose capsule, and renal fascia surround each kidney - the fatty adipose capsule helps hold the kidneys in position.
the turing of a bone around it's own long axis
lymph nodes
clustered along lymphatic vessels, filter lymph.
Neuroglia (supporting cells)
segregate and insulate neurons and assist neurons in various other ways
characteristics of blood
viscous, slightly alkaline fluid about 8% of total body weight
T Tubules
invaginations of the sarcolemma that run between the terminal cisternae of the SR. They allow the electrical stimulus to be delivered quickly to deep cell regions.
slender tubes running from each kidney to the bladder. They conduct urine by perstalsis from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder.
third class lever system
load effort fulcrum
components of blood
formed elements and plasma
connective tissue
originate from embryonic mesenchyme and exhibit matrix
functions of blood
delivery of oxygen and nutrients to body tissues,
removal of metabolic wastes, transport of hormones, maintenance of body temperature, fluid volume, prevention of infections and homeostasis.
a collection of cell bodies in the CNS
the forearm rotates medially and the palm faces posteriorly or inferiorly.
plasma proteins
albumin (contributes to osmotic pressure of blood)
and clotting proteins
arm/forearm/hand bones
radius and ulna
subdivisions of the renal tubule (nephrons)
the glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle and distal convoluted tubule.
a collection of cell bodies in the PNS
leukocytes (white blood cells)
defend against disease
includes: nutrophils (active phagocytes) basophils (histamine) and eosonphils (attack parasitic worms)
nervous tissue
forms organs of the nervous system. it is composed of neurons and supporting cells
90% water
10% solutes (nutrients, respiratory gases, salts, hormonesand proteins)
plasma makes up 55% of blood

muscle functions
muscles move internal and external body parts, maintain posture, stabilize joints and generate heat.
the liver's digestive role
to produce bile, which it secretes into the common hepatic duct.
the pelvic girdle
specialised for weight baring.
composed of 2 hip bones that secure the lower limbs to the axial skeleton. together with the sacrum, the hip bones form the basinlike bony pelvis.
functions of the nephron
filtration, tubular reabsorption, tubular secretion.
inflammation of a bursa
lymphatic ducts
the right lymphatic duct drains lymph from the right arm and right side of the upper body; the thoracic duct receives lymph from the rest of the body.
gliding movements
1 flat or nearly flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface
formed elements
erythrocytes (red blood cells)
leukocytes (white blood cells)
thrombocytes (platelets)
all formed elements arise from hemocytoblasts in red bone marrow
the sole faces laterally
erythrocytes (red blood cells)
contain large amounts of hemaglobin. major function is oxygen transport.
muscle tissue
consists of elongated cells specialized to contract and cause movement.
functions of the kidney
eliminate nitrogenous metabolic wastes, regulate the volume, composition and PH of the blood.
prime movers
bear the cheif responsibility for producing movement
the spleen
provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune function, destroys aged or defective red blood cells and bloodborne pathogen. stores platelets.
sensory (afferent) division
conveys impulses to the CNS
thrombocytes (platelets)
help in clotting
gross anatomy of a skeletal muscle
skeletal muscle fibres (cells) are protected and strengthened by connective tissue coverings. Deep to superficial these are: endomysium, perimysium and epimysium.
takes place in the mouth - chewing, swallowing etc
bending the head backwards beyond it's upright position
blood flow of the heart
the right ventricle discharges blood into the pulmonary trunk, the left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta
have a cell body (soma) and cytoplasmic processes called axons and dendrites
the heart
about the size of a clenched fist, located within the mediaststinum of the thorax
angular movements
increase or decrease the angle between 2 bones;-flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction
prevention of blood loss
1/ vascular spasms
2/platelet plug formation
3/blood coagulation
the bony thorax
the bones of the thorax include the 12 rib pairs, the sternum, and the thoracic vertebrae. Protects the organs of the thoracic cavity.
nephron consist of
a glomerulus
a renal tubule
appendicular skeleton
the bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdles and the limbs
lymphoid organs
include lymph nodes, the sleen, thymus, tonsils, and follicle aggregates.
axial skeleton
the longitudinal axis of the body; skull, vertebral column, bony thorax
the large intestine
the cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal.
the sole of the foot turns medially
lymphoid cells
include lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, reticular cells
skeletal muscle
attached to and moves the bony skeleton; cells are cylindrical and striated
layers of the heart wall
endocardium (inner)
myocardium (middle)
epicardium (outer)
inflammation of a tendon sheath
coverings of the heart
outer parietal pericardium
inner viseral pericardium
each sarcomere contains thick (myosin) and thin (actin) myofilaments arranged in a regular array. the heads of myosin molecules form cross bridges that interact with the thin filaments.
smooth muscle
in the walls of hollow organs; propels substances through the organs; cells are spindle shaped and non-striated.
parathyroid glands
located on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland - secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) which causes and increase in blood calcium levels by targeting bone, the intestine, and kidneys (PTH is the antagonist of calcitonin)
rotating the forearm laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly or superiorly
movement of a limb toward the midline
reproduction, growth and development, mobilization of body defenses to stressors, maintaining electrolyte, water and nutrient balance, and regulating cellular metabolism.
chemical digestion
takes place in the small intestine - pancreatic juice and bile breakdown the food.
moving an elevated body part inferiorly
the left heart
systemic circuit pump. oxygenated blood entering the left atrium from the lungs flows into the left ventricle and then into the aorta, systemic veins return the oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium.
cartilage injuries
may result from excessive twisting or high pressure. The avascular cartilage is unable to repair itself.
he digestive system
includes organs of the G.I tract - mouth , pharynx, eosophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and accessory digestive organs - teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
plane joints
allow only short slipping or gliding movements e.g the intercarpal and intertarsal joints and the joints between vertebral articular processes.
moving a limb so that it describes a cone
the smallest unit capable of life by itself
the cell
classification of bones
bones are classified as long, short, flat, or irregular
contain thick collagen fibres are the most compressible cartilages and are resistant to stretch. They form vertebral discs and knee joint cartilages.
respond to internal stimuli, located in the musculoskeletal organs. Advise the brain of our own movements.
touch, pressure (including blood pressure) vibration, stretch and itch
sensory receptors
specialized to respond to environmental changes (stimuli)
respond to potentially damaging stimuli that cause pain.
somatic nervous system
provides motor fibres to skeletal muscles.
reflex arcs
a rapid, involuntary motor response to a stimulis. 5 elements: receptor, sensory neuron, integration centre, motor neuron, and effector
autonomic nervous system
the motor division of the PNS that controls visceral activities, with the goal of maintaining internal homeostasis.
sensitive to temperature changes.
respond to light
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)
a system of membranous tubules surrounding each myofibril. It's function is to release and then sequester calcium ions.
respond to chemicals - smelled or tasted, or changes in blood chemistry
aid a prime mover by effecting the same action, stabilizing joints, or preventing undesirable movements.
ball and socket joints
the most freely moving synovial joints universal movement is allowed. e.g the shoulder and hip joints
peripheral nervous system
consists of sensory receptors, nerves conducting impulses to and from the CNS, their associated ganglia and motor endings
reverse or oppose the action of another muscle
peripheral nervous system PNS)
cranial and spinal nerves
the major types of lipid found in the plasma membrane
cholesterol and phospholipids
saddle joints
e.g joints of the thumbs
somatic (voluntary) system
division of the efferent division. serves skeletal muscles
relay station in conduction of sensory impulses to cerebral cortex for interpretation and impulses to and from cerebral motor cortex - involved in memory processing
a bundle of fibres in the PNS
cheif integration centre of autonomic nervous system, regulates body temp, food intake, water balance, thirst, biological ryths and drives, regulates hormonal output, endocrine organ, part of the limbic system.
limbic system
mediates emoptional response and involved in memory processing.
mid brain
visual and auditory reflex centre,

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