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USMLE-Behavioral and Biostatistics


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when both a living will and power of attorney exist, which supersedes the other?
power of attorney
stages of grief
denial, anger, bargaining, grieving, acceptance
how do you treat DTs?
what are the characteristics of DTs?
autonomic system hyperactivity (tachycardia, tremors, axiety), psychotic sx (hallucinations, delustions), confusion
sleep patterns of depressed patients?
decreased slow-wave sleep, decreased REM latency, early morning awakening
what is malingering?
patient conciously fakes or claims to have a disorder in order to attain a specific gain
what is a facticious disorder?
conciously creates sx in order to assume 'sick role' and get medical attention - motivation is unconscious
what is gamophobia?
fear of marriage
what is algophobia?
fear of pain
what is acrophobia?
fear of height
what are the characteristics of an adjustment disorder?
emotional symptoms (anxiety, depression) causing impairment following an identifiale psychosocial stressor (e.g. divorce, moving), and lasting <6 months
what do you call a false blief not shared with other members of culture/subculture that is firmly maintained in spite of obvious proof to the contrary?
what the difference between a hallucination and an illusion?
hallucination - perception in the absence of external stimuli; illusion - misinterpretations of actual stimuli
when does hypnagogic hallucination occur?
when GOing to sleep
tactile hallucinations are common when?
Dts, cocaine abusers
when do hypnopompic hallucinations occur?
while waking from sleep
how do you treat narcolepsy?
stimulants, e.g. amphetamines
what is a schizoaffective disorder?
a combination of schizophrenia and a mood disorder
paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal personality disorders fall into what cluster?
cluster A - weird
antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic personality disorders fall into what cluster?
cluster B - wild
avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, dependent personality disorders fall into what cluster?
cluster C - worried
cluster A personality disorders are characterized by what?
odd or eccentric, can't develop meaningful social relationships' no psychosis, but genetic association with schizophrenia
personality disorder characterized by distrust and suspiciousness; projection is main defense mechanism
personality disorder characterized by voluntary social withdrawal, limited emotional expression
personality disorder characterized by interpersonal awkwardness, odd beliefs or magical thinking, eccentric appearance
characteristics of cluster B personality disorders?
dramatic, emotional, or erratic; genetic association with mood disorders and substance abuse
personality disorder characterized by disregard for and violation of rights or others, criminality
personality disorder characterized by unstable mood and interpersonal relationships, impulsiveness, sense of emptiness
personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality, attention seeking, sexually provocative
personality disorder characterized by grandiosity, sense of entitlement; may react to criticism with rage; may demand 'top' physician/best health care
personality disorder characterized by sensitivity to rejection, social inhibition, timid, feelings of inadequacy
what are the characteristics of cluster C personality disorders?
anxious or fearfull; genetic association with anxiety disorders
personality disorder characterized by submissive and clinging, excessive need to be taken care or, low self-confidence
personality disorder characterized by preoccupation with order, perfectionism, and control
moro reflex
can be elicited by any startling event; extension and abduction of the arms, followed by adduction of arms - normally disappears between 3-6 months
palmar grasp reflex
infant's hand closing over an object that is placed in palm of hand - normally disappears at 2 months
tonic neck reflex
extension of ipsilateral leg and flexion of the contralateral arm when the head is turned - normally disappears between 7-8 months
what is prosopagnosisa and what causes it?
inability to recognize faces - usually caused by a bilateral lesion of the visual association cortex
what is anosagnosia and what causes it?
deficit in cognition about one's illnes, or the lack of awareness that one is suffering from a certain condition - related to large lesions of hte nondominant parietal lobe, which causes the pateint to be confused and unaware of motor and sensory deficits
what is confabulation?
fabrication of stories and events that never happened in order to fill in memory gaps; seen mostly in dementias
what is conversion disorder?
characterized by one or more neurologic symptoms (motor, sensory, or changes in consciousness such as pseudoseizures) associated with unresolved psychological conflicts - sx are unconscious and develop as a result of repressed anxiety about the unacceptable impulses
what is Ganser syndrome?
dissociative disorder NOS - giving approximate answers instead of exact ones - associated with other sx like amnesia, disorientation, and perceptual disturbances. seen most commonly in prison inmates
dissociative disorder defined by combination of amnesia plus travel
psychogenic fugue - patient typically regains awareness after traveling to a different locale but retains no memory of the trip of the decision to go on it
what is somnambulism?
sleep walking - disorder of stage 4 sleep
what is mobius syndrome?
congenital facial diplegia - face is expressionless, and ocular palsy may be present. frequently accompanied by clubfoot and syndactyly and MR
what is pseudodementia?
major depression in an elderly person - all of the symptoms of a depressive disorder without hallmarks of an organic condition
what is the Tarasoff I decision?
requires that physicians warn a potential victim if they truly believe the patient will cause harm to that person
what is the Tarasoff II decision?
states that even though physicians must warn a potential victim, they must also protect the patient from harm from that person
the irresistible impulse rule and the McNaughten rule are involved in what?
insanity defenses
the combination of an MAOI with what drug produces a severe reaction, including delerium, hyperpyrexia, convulsions, and hypertension
intelligence scale best for younger children since it doesn't rely exclusively on language
scale used to assess the attainment of developmental milestones in children younger than 2 years
denver developmental scale
age group for which WAIS-R is used
17 and older (think rated R)
age group for which WISC III is used
age group for which WPPSI is used
person acts out dreams in what sleep disorder?
REM sleep disorder - normal paralysis of muscles during REM sleep is absent; content of dreams often violent or aggressive
what sleep disorder encompasses both night terrors and sleepwalking?
non-REM sleep disorder - people do not act out dreams in either condition
child's awareness of the conservation of volume occurs between what ages and is what stage?
7-11 years - concrete operations
between what ages is the preoperational stage?
2-7 years
the sensorimotor stage corresponds to what ages?
learning by reinforcement is what type of conditioning?
toilet training is not possible before what age?
18 months
stranger anxiety, orientation to voice occurs at approximately what age?
7-9 months
when does separation anxiety occur?
between 10-12 months
when does the social smile appear?
2-3 months
what is the infant mortality rate equal to?
the number of deaths occuring until the first birthday divided by the total number of live births
this is a projective test htat uses pictures depicting ambiguous interpersonal situations that the examinee is asked to interpret
the thematic apperception test
this is the most popular objective personality test; it uses true and false items
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
a relationship between what neurotransmitter and aggression has been found?
a study that is chosen based on presence or absence of disease and then information collected about risk factors
case-control study
a cohort study is what kind of study?
in this type of study, the sample is chosen about presence or absence of risk factors and subjects are followed over time for development of disease
cohort study
define prevalence
total cases in population at a given time/ total population
define incidence
new cases in population over a given time period/total population at risk during that time
for what type of diseases is prevalence greater than incidence?
chronic diseases
for what type of diseases does prevalence equal incidence?
acute diseases
for what type of test is high sensitivity desirable?
define sensitivity and give formula
number of true positives divided by number of all people with the disease: a/a+c
how do you calculate the false negative rate?
for what type of test is high specificity desirable for?
confirmatory test
define specificity and give formula
number of true negatives divided by number of all people without the disease: d/b+d
1-specificity is equal to what?
false positive rate
what is positive predictive value and how do you calculate it?
probability of havinig a condition given a positive test - number of true positives divided by number of people who tested positive for the disease: a/a+b
what is negative predictive value and how do you calculate it?
probability of having a condition given a negative test - number of true negatives divided by number of people who tested negative for a disease: d/c+d
which are dependent on the prevalence of disease: sensitivity/specificity or predictive values?
predictive values
when prevalence is higher, what increases?
positive predictive value
when prevalence is lower what increases?
negative predictive value
what is an odds ratio?
odds of having disease in exposed group divided by odds of having disease in unexposed group (odds calculated within group as number with disease divided by number without disease)
what is the formula for odds ratio?
(a/b)/(c/d) = ad/bc
what is relative risk?
disease risk in exposed group dividd by disease risk in unexposed group - risk is calculated within a group as number with disease divided by total number of people in group
what is the formula for relative risk?
what is a type I error?
stating that there is an effect when none exists; equal to p
what is a type II error?
stating that there is not an effect of difference when one exists (power= 1-type II)
what does Z equal for the 95% confidence interval?
what is the formula for confidence interval?
CI=range from (mean-Z(SEM) to (mean+Z(SEM)
what does standard error of the mean equal?
standard deviation/square root of n
a t-test checks the difference between what?
the means of 2 groups
what does ANOVA check?
the difference between the means of 3 or more groups
what does chi square check?
difference between 2 or more percentages or proportions of categorical outcomes (not means)
mean > median > mode is what kind of skew?
positive - tail on right
mean < median < mode is what kind of skew?
negative - tail on left
mean < median < mode is what kind of skew?
negative - tail on left
mean < median < mode is what kind of skew? negative - tail on left
mean < median < mode is what kind of skew? negative - tail on left

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