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Biostats Chapter Seven

Terms

undefined, object
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hypothesis
claim or statement about a property of a population
hypothesis test
test of significance-standard procedure for testing a claim about a property of a population
test statistic
value computed from the sample data and is used in making the decision about the rejection of the null hypothesis
critical region
set of all values of the test statistic that cause us to reject the null hypothesis
significance level
alpha-probability that the test statistic will fall in the critical region when the null hypothesis is actually true
critical value
value that seperates the critical region from the calues of the test statistic that do not lead to rejection of the null hypothesis
P-value
probability of getting a value of the test statistic that is at least as extreme as the one representing sample data, assuming that the null hypothesis is true
type I error
the mistake of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true, alpha
type II error
the mistake of failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is actually false-beta
power
probability (1-B) of rejecting a false null hypothesis, which is cumputed by using a paticular significance level alpha, a paticular sample size n, a particular assumed value of the population parameter and a particular value of the population parameter that is an alternative to the value assumed in the null hypothesis
testing the claims about a population mean (with sigma not known)
1. the sample is a simple random sample
2. the value of the population standard deviation is not known
3. either of both of these conditions is satisfied: the population is normally distributed or n is greater than 30

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