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Making Babies (NURS 450)


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how long can sperm survive in the female repro. tract?
five days
how long does an egg have to become fertilized after ovulation?
24 hours
At what point does the egg implant itself into the endometrial lining?
Six days after fertilization.
What organ does 60% of ejaculate come from?
the seminal vesicle.
Which gland produces fluid for lubrication prior to ejaculation?
The Cowper's Gland.
What gland produces lubrication during sexual arousal?
the bartholomeus gland
What is the protein shell that encases a woman's egg?
the zona
what must sperm have in order to be absorbed by the egg?
proteins similiar to those on the surface of the egg.
what percentage of fertilized eggs die?
what is the name of the process that a cell undergoes when it becomes an embryo?
how many pregnancies are unplanned?
what are the chances of a woman catching an STI?
1 in 4
What is the purpose of herpes treatments?
to decrease unpleasant symptoms.
8 signs of pregnancy
1. tender breasts 2. spotting 3.fatigue 4.nausea 5.stretching pelvic liga. cravings 7.bloating 8. increased urination
Preg. Test History
1350- wheat/barley 1500-piss prophet 1900-progestin ID 1930-hormone research/ID 1960/70- wampole's 2hr test 1976- EPT (10$) 1990- early/accu. tests avail. 2003- Digital testing
When is HCG released?
when embryo implants into endometrium
How high are HCG levels by the time menses is missed?
b/w 50 and 250 microint'l units
what are the two kinds of preg, tests available?
-Qualitative: Urine test. Positive if levels are b/w 25 and 50 ml. -Quantitative: Blood test. Positive if levels are above 5-10 ML.
How are urine (qualitative) tests inaccurate?
1. If used improperly 2. Exposed to sun 3. Expired 4. Presence of cancer
How many Americans have an incurable STI?
65 million
How many new STI cases are reported yearly in US?
19 million
What are the most common types of infections?
-Gonorehea -Chlymidia -Herpes -HPV
-Incubation period: 1-4 days -Bacterial -Can infect men, women, and babies
-Incubation period: 2-3 weeks -Asymptomatic in men and women
-Incubation period: 10-90 days -Can cause infections in unborn children (inutero) -Causes chancres
Dalkon Shield (Negative)
Caused septic abortions, ectopic pregnancies, severe PID, and infertility
Dalkon Shield (positive)
Made the FDA test contraceptive devices before they are allowed onto the market.
True or false: perscription barrier methods must be used with spermicide.
True or false: Interuterine devices available today protect better than the pill.
True or false: Should women take rests from the pill?
True or false: Taking the pill during pregnancy causes birth defects.
Who were they key figures in the film, "The Pill"?
Magaret Sanger, Gregory Pinkus, Katherine Mcormack, and John Rock.
In "The Pill", what was the main opposition to the development of the drug?
The Catholic Church. Believed: - Promoted promiscuity - Promo. sex before marriage
What were the drawbacks of the early pill?
-High levels of progesterone and estrogen caused stroke.
Facts from "The Pill"
-The FDA approved the pill on May 11, 1954 -First released as Enavoid for 'menstrual disorders'. -80% of women born since 1940 have taken the pill.
What are the male and female forms of sterilization?
Males: Vasectomy Females: Tubal Litigation
Examples of Ancient Contraception
-Herbal Douches - Animal Dung - Lemon Rinds (barrier)
True or False: Compared to the early pill, hormonal methods of contra. availanle today are relatively safe and effective for most women.
Who was the Catholic obstetrician who helped promote the pill?
John Rock
A hormone used to prevent pregnancy by tricking the body into thinking it's pregnant. -prevents ovulation -alters uterine lining -thickens cervical mucus
Progestin/ Progesterone Only Methods
-Implants -The Shot -The Mini-Pill
Where is progestin found in nature?
-Ox Bile -Mexican Yams
Combined estrogen/progestin methods.
-The Pill
Plan B
- Does NOT cause abortion. - Aug 2006 approved for over-counter-use. - Under 18 needs prescription. - 1.7 Million unintended pregnancies per year due to contraceptive failure. - 1.9 million unintended pregnancies per year due to nonuse of contraception. - 1.6 million abortions performed each year. - Take within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse and reduces the risk of pregnancy by 75-89% - Can be initiated within 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with less effectiveness.
True or False: According to Bainbridge, sperm are necessary for placenta development.
After last menstrual cycle, how long does it take for ovulation to occur?
two weeks, usually.
What test provides quantitative pregnancy results?
A blood (serum) test.
According to JAMA, when does a fetus begin to perceive pain?
The third trimester.
True or false: Methods of emergency contraception DO include post-coital insertion of IUD
Roe vs. Wade
-1st Trimester: Judgement of patient and care provider. -2nd Trimester: Each state may choose to regulate the proceduers in ways that are reasonable related to pregnant woman's health. -Third trimester: State may choose to limit or even prohibit aborton. It may not impose restrictions that interfere with the life or health of the preg. woman.
What % of accidental pregnancies end in abortion? Birth? Miscarriges?
47%, 40%, and 13% respectively.
What restrictions can a state put on abortions?
-Parental Consent -Mandatory Delay or State directed counseling -Limitations on private insurance coverages for abortions.
Factors contributing to the decline in number of abortion providers.
- Anti-choice harrassment and violence -Social stigma -Prof. isolation -The graying of providers -inadequate economic incentives -abortion an 'unexciting' field.
Two forms of Abortion
1-Medicinal 2-Surgical
Medicinal Abortion
1. Medicinal: Methotrexate- Orally, up to six weeks. Or Mifepristone, orally up to 9 weeks (ru486) *Vag. suppositories must be taken with meds to assist in contractions. Follow-up ultrasound also necessary.
Surgical Abortion
1- MVA or Manual Vacuum Aspiration 2-D&C or Dilation and Suction Curettage 3- Dilation and Evacuation
Multifetal Pregnancies and Abortion
- Wait and See: 10-30% feti will reduce naturally. -Elective Reduction: Done 9-12 weeks. Uses injected potassium chloride (vag or abdominal)
True or false: abortion in the first trimester is a safe and legal option in the US.
true or false: mva is a surgical method of abortion that can be performed up to twelve weeks.
t/f: a hysterectomy is a form of sterilization that absolutely cannot be reversed.

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