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Infected person
Adoptive immunity
Passive immunity of cell-mediated type conferred by admin of sensitized lymphocytes from immune donor
Any cancer-causing or -producing substance
Recurrent disease
Reoccurrence of S&S after remission
Natural hx of disease
Course from start to end w/o tx; infections have well defined stages
Study of disease
Derived from same person/animal to which transplanted
Ability to cause cancer
Idiopathic disease
Unknown cause
Protein produced by cells in response to foreign nucleic acid containing materials
Allergic disease
Caused by hypersensitivity to allergen(s)
Molecular disease
Molecular products of cell activity abnormal in composition
Soluble mediators released by T-cells on contact w/ antigen; role in macrophage activation, lymphocyte transformation, cell-mediated immunity
Factors resulting in neoplasia; ex: hormone level, diet, chemicals
Nutritional disease
Insufficient dietary intake; not balanced; result of GI tract disease
Determination of the nature of disease process, and of organs and tissues affected
Intoxicating disease
Poisoned by drug, toxic substance
Lymphoid hyperplasia
Increase in lymphatic tissue; reaction to infection; localized or systemic
State of internal harmony or balance
Localized collection of puss in cavity formed by disintegration of tissue
Degree of pathogenicity of a population or strain of an infectious agent
Pandemic disease
Widespread epidemic; worldwide
Situation where one benefits at the expense of the other
Multifactorial system of 9+ normal serum components characterized by capacity to participate in certain antibody-antigen reactions
Endemic disease
More or less continuously present in a community
Serous inflammation
Produces exudation of serum; resembles transudate but cellular and more protein-rich
Infectious agent
(Micro)organism capable of producing infection or infectious disease
Inducer (Initiator)
Chemical (carcinogen) that initiates changes in cells leading to malignant transformations
Reduction in leukocytes in blood, 5000 or less
Method of neoplasia extension beyond primary site of origin
Enzyme present in tears, saliva, egg whites, antibacterial body fluids
Inapparent infection
Infection w/o recognizable S&S
Degenerative disease
Usually have specific chemical causes; ex: aging
Condition in which the bone marrow is replaced by fibrous tissue
Cellular immunity
T-lymphocytes and activated microphages predominate
Sanguineous (hemorrhagic)
Abounding in blood
Granulation tissue
Formation of wounds of tissue composed largely of capillaries and fibroblasts
# of sick/cases
Bence-Jones proteins
Urinary proteins composed of light polypeptide chains produced in excess in pts w/ multiple myeloma (monoclonal gammopathy)
Psychosomatic disease
Originate in emotions; ex: ulcers, asthma, migraines
Immune response
Specific response resulting in immunity
Malignant neoplasm derived from mesenchymal tissue (connective tissue cells)
Humoral immunity
B-lymphocytes and plasma cells (immunoglobulins) predominate
Incubation period
Time interval b/w infection and appearance of S&S
Benign neoplasm
Growth of tissue (tumor); cells slowly grow by expansion; no metastasis; localized
Inflammation of the loose subcutaneous tissue
Principles of carcinogenesis
Effects of carcinogens are dose dependent, additive and irreversible, requires time...
Toxic disease
Cause cell injury or death due to toxins, noxious agents
Structure alteration in tissue; recognized by gross or micro exam; occurs w/ most/all diseases; distinguishes b/w diseases; aka fingerprints of disease
Substance passed through membrane or extruded from tissue; low content of protein
Benign neoplasm arising from gland epithelium
Primary host
Parasite attains maturity or passes its sexual stages
Metabolic disease
Physiologic process becomes deranged; dysfunctions of endocrine system; ex: DM
Infectious disease
Disease resulting from infection; due to infectious agent: bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa, helminths; many are contagious
Immunoproliferative disorder characterized by abnormal proliferation of lymphoid cells producing immunoglobulins
Study of neoplasia
Neoplastic disease
Cells multiplying w/o control; invade/destroy/spread to tissue
Deficiency disease
Due to absence of chemical substance, mineral, vitamin
Entry and dev't or multiplication of an infectious agent in body
Malignant neoplasm (cancer) arising from epithelial cells
Short course; swift onset; often severe
Increase in neutrophils in blood
Malignant neoplasm
Ability to invade, infiltrate, metastasize; unregulated autonomous growth
A/G ratio
Albumin:Globulin ratio in the blood serum, plasma, urine, body fluids
Sequence of events in development of disease
Epithelioid cell
Large phagocytes w/ prominent/pale nuclei; seen in lesions of granulomatous inflammation
Primary immune response
Occurs after initial contact w/ antigen
Croupous membrane [(pseudo)membranous croup]
Result of a fibrinous exudate forming a membrane-like deposit
Disease transmissible under natural conditions
Substance that can stimulate the body to form antibodies; immune response
Granulomatous inflammation
Characterized by formation of granulomas; usually chronic
Second/Intermediate host
Parasite is in a larval or asexual state
Cytophilic antibodies (cytotropic antibodies)
Antibodies with affinity for cells; bound to lymphocyte or macrophage surfaces
Intercurrent disease
Attacks a person already ill of another disease; common in elderly
Immunologic tolerance (antigenic paralysis, immunologic unresponsiveness, antigen tolerance)
Response characterized by dev't of specific nonreactivity of lymphoid tissue to a particular antigen
Inflammation of connective tissue; often leads to ulceration, abscess
Nonsusceptibility to invasive, pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or toxic effect of antigenic substances; state to resist harmful agents
Reduction in lymphocytes in blood
Break in continuity of epithelium; exposure of underlying connective tissue
Disturbance of structure or function of body or its parts; imbalance; lack of health
Phagocytes engulf microorganisms, other cells, foreign particulates
Tumor like mass; nodule of granulation; growing fibroblasts and capillary buds; assoc w/ infectious disease
Surgical Pathology
Study of organs and tissues removed surgically
Inherited or familial (genetic) inherent in chromosomes
Transmitted to offspring via genes
Above normal body temp; pyrexia
Hypersensitivity state where lgE participates in the altered immune response; ex: hay fever, asthma, eczema
Any malignant neoplasm
Latent infection
Anatomic Pathology
Study of structure (morphology) of cells, organs, tissues in disease; includes autopsy (necropsy), surgical pathology, and cytology
Diphtheritic membrane
False membrane; result from coagulation necrosis
Purulent (suppurative) inflammation
Characterized by formation of puss
Spread of neoplasm via lymphatic vessels or blood stream
Benign or malignant neoplasm composed of multiple tissue types
Substance when mixed w/ antigen, enhances antigenicity
Communicable disease (contagious)
Through transmission of a causative infectious agent from a reservoir to a susceptible host
Subjective complaints of the patient
Tumor (neoplasm)
Lodgment, dev't, and reproduction of anthropods on body surface or clothing
Substance (part of antigen) that combines with antibody but doesn't induce antibody formation unless attached to higher wt carrier
Occupational disease
Result of exposure to work enviro; ex: fumes, particles, stress
Catarrhal inflammation
Affects mucus surface; marked by copious discharge of mucus and epithelial debris
Serum substance (antibody) coats particulates (bacteria) to promote phagocytosis
Fever producing substance
Leukocyte chemotaxis
Mvt of leukocytes toward chemical reaction; part of inflammatory response
Barriers to progress of invasion/multiplication/damage
Absolute leukocytosis
Increase in ttl # of leukocytes in blood
Increase in leukocytes in blood; caused by hemorrhage, fever, inflammation, infection
Fibrinous inflammation
Exudate characterized by coagulated fibrin
Frequency of disease at a particular time
Iatrogenic disease
Induced accidentally by action of physician, vet...
# of deaths
Capacity of infectious agent to cause disease in susceptible host
Any tissue/organ for implantation/transplantation
Complement fixation
Fixation of complement to an antibody-antigen complex
Transfer factor
Substance occurring in T-lymphocytes w/ capacity to transfer delayed hypersensitivity to a normal (non-reactive) ind.
New growths occurring after lodgement in remote sites
Cause of disease; precipitating causes are conditional; predisposing causes include malnutrition, chronic disease, genetics...
Latent Period
Time b/w exposure to carcinogen and dev't of tumor
Systemic form of immediated hypersensitivity
Immunologic memory
Rapid response w/ greater intensity to subsequent antigen challenge
Traumatic disease
Due to direct physical injury: fractures, sprains, wounds; physical agents closely allied: heat, cold, electrical, irradiation
Hereditary disease (familial)
Transmitted through family members; one generation to next
Active immunity
Acquired as a result of exposure to antigen; via natural infection or vaccination
Substance that acts to lower the threshold level of action of inducers; increases possibility for malignant transformations
Fulminating disease
Acute disease that quickly proves fatal
Objective findings of clinician
Xenograft (heterograft)
Graft received from dif specie
Pre-cancerous lesion
Abnormal cells and cell arrangement prior to cancer onset
Relative leukocytosis
Increase in proportion of leukocytes in blood, w/o increasing ttl #
Accumulation of pus in a cavity; when used w/o descriptive qualifier=referred to as thoracic empyema
Graft versus host reaction (GVH)
Immune response of grafted cells (hematopoietic) against host
Exfoliative Cytology
Microscopic exam of cells desquamated from body surface; detects premalignant vs malignant change; ex: pap smear
Excess of lymphocytes in circulating blood or effusion
Passive immunity
Acquired as a result of maternal antibody or injection of antibody
Hypersensitivity (allergy)
Altered reactivity; host mounts an exaggerated immune response to antigen
Localized protective response to injury or tissue destruction; serves to destroy, dilute, wall off (sequester) injurious agent and injury tissue
Langhan's giant cell
Composed of epithelioid cells; large/irregular shape; homogeneous cytoplasm; nuclei wreath; component of granulomatous inflammation lesions
Communicable period
Time in which a disease can be transmitted
Oncogenic virus
Capable of inducing a neoplasm
Neoplastic cells w/ malignancy but not extending or metastasizing
Innate (natural) immunity
Based on genetic constitution
Material escaped from blood vessels and deposited in tissue; result of inflammation; high content of protein
Surgical removal and exam of tissue; excitional or incisional
Prediction of disease outcome
Syngraft (isograft)
Derived from a synegneic donor: identical twins or inbred animals
Long term; slow onset; continuation of acute; unresolved
Hemorrhagic inflammation
Exudate characterized by extravasated blood; high RBC present in exudate
Tumor progression
With time, neoplasm becomes more malignant
Antigen determinant
Small, 3D everted surface configuration on the antigen molecule; reacts w/ antibody
Sporadic disease
Occasional, scattered episodes
Superficial loss of epithelium; healing w/o scarring
Producing pus; pyopoietic
Increase in severity of S&S
Rendering an ind resistant/immune to harmful agent
Where infectious agent lives, multiplies, depend for survival, reproduces
Immunologic enhancement of tumor
Immunologic destruction by lymphocytes and macrophages is blocked
In oncology: change that normal cell undergoes as it becomes malignant
Loss of specialization, organization, differentiation of cells
Nonspecific immunity
Includes lysozyme and interferon activity, phagocytosis, inflammatory response, chemical/physical barriers to infection
Frequency of occurrence
Produced by the body's immune system in response to a foreign substance (antigen)
Epidemic disease
Attacks many members of community at same time; derived from common source
Liquid inflammation product made up of cells (leukocytes and neutrophils ) and liquor puris (thin fluid)
Pathognomic lesion
Lesion specific for a certain disease
Secondary immune response (anamnestic)
Occurs faster, w/ greater intensity and duration, upon re-exposure to antigen; via booster shots
Allograft (allogeneic)
B/w individuals of same species but dif genotype
Temporary cessation of S&S

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