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Microbiology Study Guide One


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Define the term microbiology
The branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effects on other living organisms.
Describe some of the different disciplines (areas of study) that are considered part of microbiology
Compare spontaneous generation and biogenesis
Spontaneous generation: the doctrine that held that non-living matter could spontaneously give rise to living organisms.
Biogenesis: The principle that living organisms develop only from other living organisms and not from nonliving matter.
What did Jenner contribute to Microbiology?
Jenner work to develope a method of inoculation against smallpox did show that contagion, however transmitted, could be interrupted.
What important contribution was made by Pasteur?
Louis Pasteur proposed that germs cause infectious disease. He formulated the 'germ theory of disease.'
What important contribution was made by Lister?
Joseph Lister was a British physician who introduced the principles of sterile surgery to his practice. He wrote a paper on disease to suggest that microbes were responsible for postsurgical gangrene and other sugical complications.
What important contribution was made by Koch:
Koch's postulates a series of procedures by which a specific microorganism can be related to a specific infectious disease.
What important contribution was made by Ehrlich?
Synthesized a "magic bullet" for syphilis
What important contribution was made by Fleming?
Discovered Penicillin
What is the germ theory of disease?
The germ theory of disease holds which holds that microorganisms are responsible for infectious disease.
What is the purpose of Koch's postulates?
A series of procedures by which a specific microorganism can be related to a specific infectious disease.
Explain the first step of Koch's Postulate.
The same microorganisms are present in every case of the disease.
Explain the second step of Koch's Postulate.
The microorganisms are isolated from the tissues of a dead animal, and a pure culture is prepared.
Explain the third step of Koch's Postulate.
Microorganisms from the pure culture are inoculated into a healthy, susecptible animal. The disease is reproduced.
Explain the fourth step of Koch's Postulate.
The identical microorganism are isolated and re-cultivated from the tissue specimens of the experimental animal.
Why are fungi not considered plants?
* polysaccharide chitin in fungal cells walls but not in plant walls.
* Fungi do not carry out photsynthesis
* absorb and use preformed organic matter from the environment as their nutritional source.
Describe the reproduction and nutrition of fungi.
* reproduce asexually and sexually.
* asexually when nutrients and water are abundant
* sexually when nutrients and water are scarce.
Give Examples of useful fungi.
* for foods and drinks such as bread and beer.
* Medicines such as Penicillium notatum.
* Industrial processes depend on certain species of fungus.
* Some water fungi are important in natural decomposition of sewage.
Give Examples of Pathogenic fungi.
Agriculture-black smut, rust, potato blight, aflatoxin

Human pathogens - molds dematomycoses - ringworm - athlete's foot.
Name two protozoan diseases:
1) Plasmodium sp. Malaria
2) Giardia - giardiasis (form of dysentery)
What are pinworms? How are they transmitted?
Pinworm is a roundworm called enterobius vermicularis.
They are transmitted by bedding, clothing, or contaminated fingers.
Describe trichinosis.
Parasite that is found in pork and pork products. Cause by the small round worm Trichinella spiralis.
Describe two ways in which tape worms are transmitted.
improper cooking, not washing hands, dog licking face.

Prevented by proper cooking, freezing and avoid affected dogs.
What are the three domains?
Bacteria - Archaea - Eukaryote
List the four kingdoms of Eukarya.
Fungi - Protists - Animals - Plants
Give an example of fungi.
Mushrooms, molds and yeasts
Give an example of Protists:
Unicellular algae and Protozoa
Give an example of Animals.
Insects, Vertebrates, Mollusc, Roundworms, Jelly fish, sponges, starfish.
Give an example of plants.
Flowering plants, green algae, brown algae, golden algae, red algae.
Bacteria contain bacterial rRNA, rRNA that is unique to the Bacteria as indicated by the presence molecular regions distinctly different from the rRNA of __________ and ___________.
Archaea and Eukarya
Give examples of bacteria genera.
mycoplasmas, Cyanobateria, Gram-positve bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria.
Describe some characteristics of Archae.
*Archaea are prokaryotic cells.
*Archaea have membranes composed of branched hydrocarbon chains attached to glycerol by ether linkages.
* cell walls contain no peptidoglycan
* not sensitive to some antibiotics that affect Eukarya.
*Contain archaela rRNA,
What is binomial nomclature?
The system of scientific classification and identification of species in which each is identified by its genus and species.
Example: Homo sapiens
Give examples of bacteria with there scientific names written correctly.
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Streptococcus pneumonia
Bacillus magaterium
Escherichia coli
What is a bacterial species?
a population of cells with similar characteristics
What is a strain?
A variation within a species.
Ex: E. Coli and E. Coli 0157:H7
What are the three divisions of bacteria based on cell wall?
1. Gracilicutes -thin walled Gram -
2. Firmicutes - Thick walled, Gram +
3. Tenericutes - Wall-less, soft, no rigid cell wall (weak walled), very little Peptoglycan.
What criteria are used in classifying bacteria?
Define the term virus.
Tiny acellular (non-living obligate intracellular parasite)
Give several reasons why viruses are not considred living organisms.
No cellular structures, membranes, cytoplasm.
DNA or RNA not both
no water
no growth
No ATP synthesis
What criteria are used to classify viruses?
Families, nucleic acid & species
Give an example of (species or common name) of an animal virus for each of the four different types of nucleic acid discussed in class. Include the family for each.
List and describe the five steps in the lytic (virulent)cycle of bacteriophase.
1. Attachement
2. Penetration
3. Biosynthesis
4. Assembly
5. Lysis
Lytic cycle of a virus
penetration (injects DNA)
Lysogenic (laten) cycle of a virus
Attachment & Pennetration
prophage formation (latent)* or
release (lysis)
Describe the six stages of animal viral multiplication.
What is a provirus?
a virus that never leaves the cell
A DNA virus
What is the function of reverse transcriptase?
Turns an RNA into a cDNA
What are some of the possible effects of a virus on an animal cell?
cytopathic effects
lysis cells
Characteristics of a Gram +
Peptidoglycan layer____________
Teicholic Acid_____________
Lipoprotein outer layer
Lipid content (LPS)__________
Toxin Produced__________
Susceptibility to Penicillin (PCN)_
Purple or blue
Characteristics of a Gram -
Peptidoglycan layer____________
Teicholic Acid_____________
Lipoprotein outer layer
Lipid content (LPS)__________
Toxin Produced__________
Susceptibility to Penicillin (PCN)_
What is the Science of Classification. The study of classifying organs and how closly related they are?
The broadest categories of Taxonomy
3 domains
The narrowest Categories of Taxonomy.
Genus and Species
The Kingdom Protist is ____________ but complext, cell has a ____________, nutrition via ____________ for animal-like protists. _____________ or ___________ for plant like protists:__________ alge.
unicellular but complex, cell has a nucleus, nutrition via "eating' for animal like protists. Protozoans or photosynthesis for plant-like protist:unicellular alge.
The characteristics of the kingdom Fungi. _________, similar to pants but no_____________, nutrution via _____________ of _______ _________ matter. Includes___________, yeasts and _______.
Multicellular/photsynthesis, absorbtion of dead organic. muschooms, yeasts and molds.
Charcteristics of the kingdom "Plants".
____________, ___________ cells, _____________. Includes the green ___________.
Multicellular, nucleated cells, photosynthesic. Includes the green plants.
The charcteristics of the Kingdom 'Animals'__________, ___________ cells, nutrition via____________. Includes: insects, __________, fish, and _____________ such as man.
multicellular, nucleated cells, nurition via 'eating'. Includes: insects, birds, fish and mammals such as man.

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