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Med Term Ch 6


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acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
a syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop; transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood
active immunity
a long-lasting immunity that results from stimulating the body to produce its own antibodies; developed either naturally, in response to an infection, or artificially, in response to the administation of a vaccine
a group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei
a condition of reduced numbers of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or packed red cells in the blood, resulting in a dimished ability of red blood cells to transport oxygen to the tissues
presence of red blood cells of unequal size (an = not, iso = equal)
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
a substance that, when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it
aplastic anemia
a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells
autoimmune disease
any disorder characterized by abnormal function of the immune system that causes the body to produce antibodies against itself, resulting in tissue destruction or loss of function; rheumatoid arthritis and lupus are examples of autoimmune disease (auto =
autologous blood
blood donated by and stored for a patient for future personal use (eg. upcoming surgery)
basic metabolic panel (BMP)
battery of tests used as a general screen for disease; includes tests for calcium, carbon dioxide (CO2), chloride, creatinine, glucose, potassium, sodium, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
a granular leukocyte, named for the dark stain of its granules, that brings anticoagulant substances to inflamed tissues (baso = base; phil = attraction for)
germ or bud
blood chemistry
test of the fluid portion of blood to measure the amounts of its chemical constituents (eg. glucose and cholesterol)
blood chemistry panels
specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood; used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions (eg. metabolic panel, lipid panel, and arthritis panel)
blood component therapy
transfusion of a specific blood component, such as packed red blood cells, platelets, or plasma
blood culture
test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a specimen of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of microorganisms; the specimen is observed, and the organisms that grow in the culture are identified
blood indices
calculations of RBC, HGB, and HCT results to determine the average size, hemoglobin concentration, and content of red blood cells to classify an anemia
blood transfusion
introduction of blood products into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
bone marrow aspiration
needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathologic examination
bone marrow biopsy
pathologic examination of bone marrow tissue
bone marrow transplant
transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor to a diseased recipient to stimulate blood cell production
CD4 cell count
a measure of the number of CD4 cells (a subset of T lymphocytes) in the blood; used in monitoring the course of HIV and in timing the treatment of AIDS; the normal adult range is 600-1500 cells in a given volume of blood
treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or to impair their ability to reproduce
chrom/o, chromat/o
white or pale yellow substance in lymph that contains fatty substances absorbed by the lacteals
complete blood count (CBC)
a common laboratory blood test performed as a screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes and typically includes the component tests that follow; test results are usually reported along with normal values so that the clinician can interpret the re
comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)
test performed in addition to the basic panel for expanded screening; albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
computed tomography (CT)
full body x-ray CT images are used to detect tumors and cancers such as lymphoma
method of matching a donor's blood to the recipient by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility
differential count
determination of the number of each type of white blood cell (leukocyte) in a stained blood smear; each type is counted and reported as a percentage of the total examined lymphocytes: 25-33%; monocytes: 3-7%; neutrophils: 54-75%; eosinophils: 1-3%; ba
a granular leukcyte, named for the rose-colored stain of its granules, that increases in allergic and some infectious reactions (eos = dawn-colored; phil = attraction for)
erythroblastosis fetalis
a disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with Rh-positive blood and a mother with Rh-negative blood, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus; a blood transfusion is necessary to save the fetus
red blood cell; trasnports oxygen and carbon dioxide
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
timed test that measures the rate at which red blood cells settle through a volume of plasma
an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells
a group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm
hem/o, hemat/o
hematocrit (HCT or Hct)
a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
hereditary disorder with an excessive buildup of iron deposits in the body
the protein-iron compound in erythrocytes that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
hemoglobin (HGB or Hgb)
a test to determine the blood level of hemoglobin (expressed in grams)
breakdown of the red blood cell membrane
a group of hereditary bleeding disorders caused by a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
a drug that stops the flow of blood within the vessels
homologous blood
blood voluntarily donated by any person for tranfusion to a compatible recipient
process of disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen
impaired immunologic defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or by therapy with immunosuppressive agents
impaired ability to provide an immune response
use of biologic agents to prevent or treat disease by stimulating the body's own defense mechanisms, as seen in the treatment of AIDS, cancer, or allergy
iron deficiency anemia
a microcytic-hypochromic type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron that affects the production of hemoglobin and is characterized by small red blood cells containing low amounts of hemoglobin
specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine that absorb fat into the bloodstream (lacteus = milky)
chronic or acute malignant(cancerous) disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow
white blood cell; protects the body from harmful invading substances
fluid that is circulated through the lymph vessels
lymph capillaries
microscopic vessels that draw lymph from tissues to the lymph vessels
lymph ducts
collecting channels that carry lymph from the lumph nodes to the veins
lymph node dissection
removal of possible cancer-carrying lymph nodes for pathologic examination
lymph nodes
many small, oval structures that filter lymph from the lymph vessels; major locations include the cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions
lymph vessels
vessels that receive lymph from the lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes
clear fluid
removal of a lymph node
enlarged (diseased) lymph nodes
incision into a lymph node
an x-ray image of a lymph node or vessel obtained after injection of a contrast medium
an agranulocyte leukocyte that is active in the process of immunity; the three categories of lymphocytes are T cells (thymus dependent), B cells (bone marrow derived), and natural killer (NK) cells
an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in Hodgkin disease
presence of large red blood cells
mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin (MCH)
calculation of the content (weight) of hemoglobin in the average red blood cell using HGB and RBC results: MCH = HGB/RBC
mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
calculation of the average hemoglobin concentration in each red blood cell using HGB and HCT results: MCHC = HGB/HCT
mean corpuscular (cell) volume (MCV)
calculation of the volume (size) of individual red blood cells using HCT and RBC results (MCV = HCT/RBC)
process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to a distant organ; the plural form, metastases, indicates spreading to two or more distant sites
presence of small red blood cells
an agranulocyte leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infection (mono = one)
condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
bone marrow or spinal cord
disorder within the bone marrow characterized by a proliferation of abnormal stem cells (cells that give rise to different types of blood cells); usually develops into a specific type of leukemia
a decreased number of neutrophils
a granular leukocyte, named for the neutral stain of its granules, that fights infection by swallowing bacteria (phagocytosis) (neutr = neither; phil = attraction for)
an abnormally reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
test to determine coagulation defects, such as platelet disorders
passive immunity
a short-lasting immunity that results from foreign antibodies that are conveyed either naturally, through the placenta to a fetus, or artificially, by injection of a serum containing antibodies
pernicious anemia
a macroytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, causing red blood cells to become large, varied in shape, and reduced in number
ear or swallow
phlebotomy / venipuncture
incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
liquid portion of the blood and lymph; contains water, proteins, and cellular components (ie. leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets)
removal of plasma from the body with separation and extraction of specific elements (eg. platelets) followed by reinfusion (apheresis = a withdrawl)
platelet count (PLT)
calculation of the number of thrombocytes in the blood; the normal adult range is 150,000-450,000 platelets in a given volume of blood
thrombocytes; cell fragments in the blood that are essential for blood clotting (coagulation)
presence of large, irregularly shaped red blood cells
increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte
another term for neutrophil, referring to the many segments in its neucleus (poly = many, morpho = form, nucleus = kernel)
positron-emission tomography (PET)
scanning technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of anatomy and metabolic function within the body; useful in determining the recurrence of cancers or to measure response to therapy ; commonly used in eval
protein substance in the blood that is essential to the clotting process
prothrombin time (PT)
test to measure activity of prothrombin in the blood
red blood count (RBC)
a count of the number of red blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manuel or automated laboratory methods
red cell morphology
as part of identifying and counting the white blood cells, the condition, size, and shape of red blood cells in the background of the smeared slide are noted (eg. anisocytosis, poikilocytosis)
a net
an increased number of immature erythrocytes in the blood
Rh factor
presence or lack of antigens on the surface of red blood cells, which causes a reaction between Rh-positive blood and Rh-negative blood
Rh negative
absence of antigens
Rh positive
presence of antigens
right lymphatic duct
receives lymph from the right upper part of the body
systemic disease caused by infection with microorganisms and their toxins in circulating blood
liquid portion of the blood that remains after clotting
organ between the stomach and the diaphragm that filters out aging blood cells, removes cellular debris by performing phagocytosis, and provides an environment for lymphocytes to initiate immune responses
removal of the spleen
enlargement of the spleen
thoracic duct
receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, left arm, and lower extermities
an abnormally decreased number of platelets in the blood, impairing the clotting process
substance present in tissues, platelets, and leukocytes that is necessary for coagulation
thymus gland
removal of the thymus gland
primary gland of the lymphatic system, located within the mediastinum, that helps to maintain the body's immune response by producing T lymphocytes
a drug that causes a narrowing of blood vessels, thereby decreasing blood flow
a drug that causes dilation of blood vessels, thereby increasing blood flow
white blood count (WBC)
a count of the number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood obtained via manuel or automated laboratory methods

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