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Med Term Ch 5


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acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
signs and symptoms indicating an active process of atherosclerotic plaque buildup or formation of a thrombus, or spasm within a coronary artery, causing a reduction or loss of blood flow to myocardial tisue; includes unstable angina and other pathological
opening; the joining of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
a widening; a bulging of the wall of the heart, aorta, or artery caused by a congenital defect or acquired weakness
angi/o, vas/o, vascul/o
angina pectoris
chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle; often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries
record obtained by angiography
process of x-ray imaging a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium, most commonly after catheter placement
angioscopy / vascular endoscopy
use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope (accompanied by an irrigation system, camera, video recorder, and monitor) that is guided through a specific blood vessel to visually assess a lesion and to select the mode of therapy
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
drug that suppresses the conversion of angiotensin in the blood by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); used in the treatment of hypertension
drug that dilates coronary arteries, restoring oxygen to the tissues to relieve the pain of angina pectoris
drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia
drug that prevents clotting of the blood; commonly used in the treatment of thrombophlebitis and myocardial infarction
drug that lowers blood pressure
large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
aortic valve
heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
x-ray image of the aorta
arrhythmia / dysrhythmia
any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
x-ray image of a particular artery (eg. coronary arteriogram or renal arteriogram)
small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification (hardening) of arterial walls
fatty (lipid) paste
excision of atheromatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexible catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue buildup
atheromatous plaque
a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat (lipids)
a form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the buildup of fatty substances that harden within the walls of arteries
atrial septal defect (ASD)
an opening in the septum separating the atria
atrioventricular (AV) node
neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
upper right or left chamber of the heart
physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with a stethoscope (eg. auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds)
bacterial endocarditis
a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
beta-adrenergic blocking agents / beta-blockers
agents that inhibit responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity, causing a slowing of electrical conduction and heart rate and a lowering of the pressure within the walls of the vessels; used to treat angina pectoris and hypertension; the Greek sma
slow heart rate (less than 60 beats/minute)
bundle of His
neurological fibers extending from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches that fire the impulse from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers
calcium-channel blockers
agents that inhibit the entry of calcium ions into heart muscle cells, causing a slowing of the heart rate, a lessening of the demand for oxygen and nutrients and a relaxing of the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels to cause dilation; used to preven
tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
cardiac catheterization
introduction of a flexible, narrow tube through a vein or artery into the heart to withdraw samples of blood, to measure pressures within the heart chambers or vessels, and to inject contrast media for fluoroscopic radiography and cine film (motion pictur
cardiac output (CO)
measurement of the amount of blood ejected per minute from either ventricle of the heart
cardiac tamponade
compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, as results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart
a general term for disease of the heart muscle, such as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (damage to the heart muscle caused by excessive consumption of alcohol)
drug that increases the force of myocardial contractions in the heart; commonly used to treat congestive heart failure (CHF)
restoration of a fast or irregular heart rate to a normal rhythm, either by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical energy
to limp; pain in a limb (especially in the calf) while walking that subside after rest; caused by inadequate blood supply
coarctation of the aorta
narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta, resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
computed tomographic angiography (CTA)
specialized, noninvasive, 3-d computed tomographic scan of the heart and circulation of the "great" blood vessels, such as the cornary arteries, aorta and pulmonary veins; performed with or without contrast
congenital anomaly of the heart
malformations of the heart that are present at birth
congestive heart failure (CHF) / left ventricular failure
failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in lower portions of the body
compression of a part that causes narrowing (stenosis)
cor pulmonale / right ventricular failure
enlargement of the right ventricle, resulting from chronic disease within the lungs, that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs
circle or crown
coronary artery disease (CAD)
a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium; most often caused by atherosclerosis
coronary circulation
circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivering an electrical stimulus to the heart; most commonly, this is done by applying the electrodes of the defibrillator externally to the chest wall, but it can also be performed internally, such as during op
device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defibrillation
change of a myocardial cell from a polarized (resting) state to a state of contraction
profuse sweating (perspiration)
to expand; period during the cardiac cycle when glood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
dissecting aneurysm
a split or tear of the vessel wall
drug that increases the secretion of urine; commonly prescribed in treating hypertension
Doppler sonography
ultrasound technique used to evaluate blood flow to determine the presence of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or carotid insufficiency, or to determine flow through the heart, chambers, valves, and so on
recording of the sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion
ejection fraction
measurement of the volume percentage of left ventricular contents ejected with each contraction
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
an electrical picture of the heart represented by positive and negative deflections on a graph labeled with the letters P, Q, R, S, and T, which correspond to events of the cardiac cycle
a clot (eg. air, fat, or a foreign object) carried in the bloodstream that obstructs the flow of blood when it lodges
surgical removal of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or atherosclerotic plaque buildup
membrane lining the cavities of the heart
membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
essential hypertension / primary hypertension
high blood pressure attributed to no single cause; risks include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors
chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
fusiform aneurysm
a spindle-shaped bulge
abnormal heart sounds that mimics the gait of a horse; related to abnormal ventricular contraction
heart murmur
an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
heart valves
structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one-way flow of blood
hypertension (HTN)
high blood pressure
drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
low blood pressure
implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
an implanted, battery-operated device with rate-sensing leads; the device monitors cardiac impulses and initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
to stuff; a localized area of necrosis (condition of tissue death) caused by ischemia resulting from occlusion of a blood vessel
interatrial septum
partition between the right and left atria
interventricular septum
partition between the right and left ventricles
intracardiac catheter ablation
use of radiofrequency waves sent through a catheter within the heart to treat arrhythmias by selectively destroying myocardial tissue at sites that generate abnormal electrical pathways
to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
left heart catheterization
x-ray imaging of the left ventricular cavity and coronary arteries
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and blood vessels for evaluation of pathology
mitral valve / bicuspid valve
heart valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contration, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
myocardial infarction (MI)
heart attack; death of myocardial tissue (infarction) caused by ischemia (loss of blood flow) as a result of an occlusion (plugging) of a coronary artery; usually caused by atherosclerosis; symptoms include pain in the chest or upper body (shoulders, neck
myocardial radionuclide perfusion scan
scan of the heart made after an intravenous injection of an isotope (eg. thallium) as it is absorbed by myocardial cells in proportion to blood flow throughout the heart; useful in evaluating coronary artery disease (CAD)
inflammation of myocardium; most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
heart muscle
normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node (average rate of 60-100 beats/minute)
normal blood pressure
plugging; an obstruction or a closing off
a device used to treat slow heart rates (bradycardia) by electrically stimulating the heart to contract; most often, it is implanted with lead wires and battery circuitry under the skin but it can also be placed on a temporary basis externally with lead w
subjective experience of pounding, skipping or racing heartbeats
parietal pericardium
outer layer
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth
pecter/o, steth/o
percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
interventional procedures used to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) performed at the time of cardiac catheterization in a specialized laboratory setting (cath lab) instead of the traditional operation room
perfusion deficit
lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion, etc
pericardial cavity
fluid-filled cavity between the pericardial layers
inflammation of the pericardium
protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
inflammation of a vein
resting; resting state of a myocardial cell
premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node (pacemaker)
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
pulmonary semilunar valve
heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
Purkinje fibers / Purkinje network
fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
x-ray imaging
recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted state back to a resting state
rheumatic heart disease
damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever (a streptococcal infection)
right heart catheterization
measurement of oxygen saturation and pressure readings of the right side of the heart
saccular aneurysm
a sac-like bulge on one side
secondary hypertension
high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease (eg. kidney disease)
sinoatrial (SA) node
the pacemaker; highly specialized, neurological tissue impeded in the wall of the right atrium; responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
sonographic image
condition of narrowing of a part
stress echocardiogram
echocardiogram of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled physical exercise (treadmill or bicycle) or a pharmaceutical agent that produces the effect of exercise stress in patients who are unable to ambulate; useful in detecting conditions s
stress electrocariogram (stress ECG or EKG)
electrocardiogram of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled physical exercise using a treadmill or ergometer (bicycle); useful in detecting heart conditions (eg. ischemia or infarction)
stroke volume (SV)
measurement of the amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in one contraction
sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)
the abrupt cesation of any cardiac output (CO), most commonly at the result of ventricular fibrillation; causes sudden death unless defibrillation is initiated imediately
systemic circulation
circulation of blood throughout the body via arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
to contract; period during the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and the pulmonary artery
fast heart rate (greater than 100 beats/minute)
thrombolytic agents
drugs used to dissolve thrombi (blood clots) (eg. streptokinase or plasminogen activator (TPA or tPA)); used in acute management of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke; commonly called "clot busters"
inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
a stationary blood clot
transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)
echocardiogram of the heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at the end of an endoscope inside the esophagus
tricuspid valve
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
valve replacement
surgery to replace a diseased heart valve with an artificial valve; there are two types of artificial valves: tissue valves, most commonly made from animal tissue (eg. porcine (pig) or bovine (cow)), and mechanical valves, made from synthetic material
valves of the veins
valves located at intervals within the lining of veins, especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
surgical repair of a defective heart valve
swollen, twisted vein
varicose veins
abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves; most often seen in the legs
drug that causes a narrowing of the blood vessels, thereby decreasing blood flow
drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels, therebyincreasing blood flow
to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally as a result of infection
vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
ven/o, phleb/o
x-ray image of a vein
lower right left chamber of the heart
ventricle (belly or pouch)
ventricular septal defect (VSD)
an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
x-ray image of the ventricles
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
visceral pericardium
layer closest to the heart

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