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GI Anatomy


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which artery supplies the foregut?
Celiac trunk
which nerve supplies parasympathetics to the foregut?
which nerve supplies sympathetics to the foregut?
splanchnic nerves
what structure are teeth situated in?
alveolar processes in mandible and maxilla
which muscles make up the floor of the mouth?
geniohyoid and mylohyoid
which muscles make up the lateral walls of the mouth?
anteriorly: buccinator, posteriorly: superior pharyngeal constrictor
Which nerves supply taste innervation to the tongue?
anterior 2/3: VII, posterior 1/3: IX
Which nerve supplies taste innervation for the epiglottis?
Which nerves serve general sensation for the tongue?
anterior 2/3: V3,posterior 1/3: IX
Which nerve supplies motor innervation for the tongue?
Where do parotid glands open into?
superior second molar
Name the 3 salivary glands
parotid, submandibular, sublingual
which vessel supplies the tongue?
Lingual artery branched from external carotid
what attaches the pharynx to the occiput?
pharyngobasilar fascia
muscles of the pharynx
superior, middle, inferior pharyngeal constrictors
posterior wall of pharynx is separated from prevertebral muscles by:
retropharyngeal space
what is the retropharyngeal space bounded by?
anteriorly by buccopharyngeal fascia, posteriorly by prevertebral fascia
medical term for swallowing
sensory and motor innervation of pharynx
sensory: CN IX, Motor: CN X
Pharyngeal blood supply (4)
tonsillar, palatine, lingual, ascending pharyngeal arteries
Components of foregut
esophagus to second part of duodenum, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
at which vertebral level does the esophagus start?
At which vertebral level is the esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm?
list the 4 places at which the esophagus is constricted
cricopharyngeus muscle, crossing aorta, crossing left main bronchus, esophageal hiatus of diaphragm
esophageal blood supply
thyroid artery, esophageal and bronchial branches of aorta, and left gastric artery
what happens during a hiatal hernia?
portion of stomach herniates through esophageal hiatus into thoracic cavity
define fundus of stomach
region superior to the esophageal opening
where is the stomach's cardiac notch?
b/w esophageal opening and fundus
what is the first part of the duodenum?
smooth walled cap or ampulla
what is the second part of the duodenum?
delineated by superior and inferior duodenal flexures
what is the third part of the duodenum?
horizontal portion
what is the fourth part of the duodenum?
ascending portion
where is the head of the pancreas?
in the c shaped region between the first, second, and third parts of the duodenum
where is the tail of the pancreas?
near the hilum of the spleen
where does the main pancreatic duct run?
along the entire pancreas, joins with the common bile duct
what makes up the portal triad?
portal vein, hepatic artery, bile duct
where is the gallbladder?
inferior to the right lobe of the liver
what forms the bile duct?
cystic duct and common hepatic duct
at what vertebral level does the celiac trunk emerge?
what are the branches of the celiac trunk?
left gastric, splenic, common hepatic artery
what does the left gastric artery supply?
lesser curvature of stomach and gives off esophageal arteries
what does splenic artery supply?
pancreas, spleen, stomach fundus, and left gastroepiploic to greater curvature
what does the common hepatic artery supply?
lesser curvature via right gastric, gallbladder via cystic, and stomach/duodenum via gastroduodenal
what does the common hepatic artery split into?
right gastric artery, cystic, and gastroduodenal
three main tributaries into portal vein
splenic vein, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric
what innervates the distal colon (pans)
pelvic nerve
which structures make up the midgut?
from third part of duodenum to proximal 2/3 of transverse colon
which artery supplies the midgut?
superior mesenteric artery
what is SANS innervation to the midgut?
lesser and least splanchnic nerves
what is PANS innervation to the midgut?
which structures make up the hindgut?
distal 1/3 of transverse colon to anal canal
which artery spplies the hindgut?
inferior mesenteric artery
what is Pans Innervation to the hindgut?
Pelvic splanchnic nerve
what is SANS innervation to the hindgut?
lumbar splanchnic nerve
name of outermost colonic muscle bands
taenia coli
name of internal wall folds of colon
at which vertebral level does the sigmoid colon attach to the rectum?
is the rectum peritoneal or retroperitoneal?
name the transverse folds in the rectum
valves of houston
name of the line demarcating ANS and somatic innervation of rectum
pectinate line (aka dentate line)
at which vertebral level does the superior mesenteric artery branch from aorta
at which vertebral level does the inferior mesenteric artery branch from aorta
structure at origin of thoracic duct
cisterna chyli
where does the thoracic duct drain into?
junction of left internal jugular and left subclavian
visceral afferent fibers from esophagus run with
visceral afferent fibers from foregut travel with
greater splanchnic nerve
visceral afferent fibers from midgut travel with
lesser and least splanchnic nerves
visceral afferent fibers from hindgut travel with
lumbar splanchnic nerve
visceral afferent fibers from sigmoid and rectum travel with
Pelvic splanchnic nerve

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