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psych 346


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List the 7 recommendations from the IES practice guide
1) Space learning over time 2) Interleave worked example solutions with problem-solving exercises 3) Combine graphics with verbal descriptions 4) Connect concrete and abstract representations 5) Use quizzing and pre-questions 6) Efficient time allocation by using delayed judgments of learning and tests/quizzes 7) Ask deep explanatory questions
Describe some important aspects of spacing over time.
There is an optimal spacing, and the more time between study episodes the better. Interval between study sessions should not be very small compared to interval between last review and the test. Also, overspacing is better than underspacing. However, TOO much spacing causes a slight decline also.
How should the content or difficulty of examples and problems change?
As student develops more expertise with subject, teacher should provide less examples and more problems.
What is the ideal combination of graphics and descriptions?
Provide a visual graphic with an auditory description is best -- provides two simultaneous streams of incoming information.
Are concrete examples or abstract representations better for: (a) quick learning (b) remembering concept later on (c) being able to recognize and use the concept in a new context
(a) concrete examples (b) abstract representations (c) abstract representations
What is "concreteness fading"?
Method of first introducing concepts to students by using concrete examples and then gradually replacing important aspects with abstract explanations.
What is "surface structure"?
Portion of an abstract idea that includes details that can change in different contexts. Is less important in learning the concept.
What is "deep structure"?
Portion of an abstract idea that does not change and is a core concept that is the essence of the idea.
What are some potential downfalls of "pre-questions"? How can these problems be avoided?
May cause the students to focus on only the material in the pre-questions, and may reduce learning for non-questioned material. Can be avoided if the teacher explicitly emphasizes that the students must learn ALL of the material that will be presented.
What is the "testing effect"? What are its effects?
Quizzing students on newly learned material and forcing them to actively recall the info. Improves the students' performance on the final test.
Why is it important to receive feedback and check answers when studying?
If feedback is not given and incorrect answers are not corrected, the same mistakes will reappear on subsequent tests.
What are the critical features of the "cue-only" judgment of learning procedure (3)?
1) Students should test mastery of set of concepts after a meaningful delay. 2) When testing whether they know the material or not, students should have access to only the cue and not the correct answer. 3) Students should judge how likely they are to get the correct answer on a quiz, rather than just trying to generate the correct answer.
How accurate are people at judging how well they know material, and how does this affect studying?
People are relatively inaccurate at judging what material they have learned well enough and what they haven't. This negatively impacts studying.
What is a "deep explanation"?
An explanation that appeals to causal mechanisms, planning, well-reasoned arguments, and logic.
Define long-term potentiation (LTP). Describe the importance of pre- and post-synaptic neurons in LTP.
LTP - intense electrical stimulation of connected areas results in hippocampal cells responding more strongly to stimuli than they had done previously. It lasts for days, weeks, and even longer. High-frequency stimulation of pre-synaptic sending mechanism releases glutamate, but for LTP to occur, the post-synaptic neuron must ALSO be operating at the appropriate level. Both circumstances must be right for connections to strengthen.
Briefly describe the "modal model" of memory.
This model assumes that info comes in through the environment through a parallel series of brief sensory memory stores or registers. It then goes into a common short-term store, which acts as a working memory that can manipulate info and transfer it to long-term storage.
What are two views of short-term memory and its relation to long-term memory?
View 1 -- STM represents the same system as LTM, but is used under special conditions which lead to very little long-term retention. View 2 -- LTM and STM involve separate memory systems, but are very closely integrated in operation.
Distinction between "episodic" and "semantic" memories.
Episodic -- involves remembering particular incidents (going to the dentist last week) Semantic -- concerns knowledge about the world (definitions, capitals, etc)
Distinction between "implicit" and "explicit" learning.
Implicit -- characterized by tasks in which the learning is measured indirectly, and not by recall or recognition of something previously seen or learned. Explicit -- characterized by having to recall or recognize info or recognize knowing such info previously.
Distinction between "declarative" and "nondeclarative" memory.
Declarative -- memory for facts or events, refers to something that can be articulated. Nondeclarative -- refers to memory that is difficult to put into words, describes something that you were taught or that you do without thinking about.
Distinction between "direct" and "indirect" learning.
Direct -- another word for explicit learning, because it involves directly remembering something that you once knew, saw, or heard. Indirect -- another word for implicit learning, because it involves measuring the learning indirectly, usually by speed or nature of subsequent performance.
Describe/define the 4 major memory systems.
Episodic -- recollection of personally experienced events. Semantic -- acquisition and retention of general knowledge of the world. Perceptual representation (PRS) -- facilitates identification of perceptual objects Procedural -- acquisition and expression of motor, perceptual, and cognitive skills, and simple conditioning.
Give examples of the types of processes that reflect the 4 different types of memory.
Episodic -- free recall, cued recall, and recognition. Semantic -- word fluency, vocabulary, and category association (primed or unprimed) PRS -- primed stem completion, primed fragment completion, and primed identification of degraded words. Procedural -- mirror reading, serial reaction time, and rotor pursuit
Define "functional dissociation".
Observed in experiments in which a single group of subjects is given 2 different tasks whose performance varies as a function of the independent variable.
Define "development dissociation".
Performance of at least 2 groups of subjects differing in age is compared on at least two tasks.
Define "pharmacological dissociation".
Performance comparisons on two or more tasks while subjects are under the influence of different drugs (often including placebos).
Define "brain-damage dissociation".
Found in experiments involving at least 2 groups of subjects differing in the kind or extent of brain damage whose performance is compared on at least 2 tasks.
What are the requirements for being a "functional dissociation"?
Study had to show differential effect of independent variable on performance on two tasks supposed to reflect two distinct systems.
What are the requirements for being a "developmental dissociation"?
Study had to include two different age groups and two measures assumed to reflect separate systems.
What are the requirements for being a "pharmacological dissociation"?
Study had to include administration of one drug and a measure of two separate systems.
What are the requirements for being a "brain-damage dissociation"?
Study had to include a single case or a group of patients with irreversible brain damage, and measures of at least two separate systems.
What brain areas do declarative systems depend on?
Two declarative systems (episodic and semantic) seem to depend on integrity of MEDIAL-TEMPORAL LOBE structures. Frontal-lobe structures may also be critical for episodic memory.
What are Brown and Kulik's 6 "canonical features" of flashbulb memories?
People remembered (or claimed to remember): 1) Source of info/how it was learned 2) Where they were 3) What they were doing beforehand 4) What they did/what happened immediately afterwards 5) How they felt 6) How others felt
Define "flashbulb memory" and "event memory".
Flashbulb memory -- memory for CIRCUMSTANCES in which one learned of an event; includes memories of where, when, and from whom one learned of the event Event memory -- memory for facts about the flashbulb event; includes specific facts about the event itself
What did Hirst et. al. want to compare in their study of flashbulb memories? What did they want to examine?
They wanted to compare the rate of forgetting of flashbulb memories and event memories of 9/11 after a period of 1 year and 3 years. They wanted to examine a range of factors that could predict a memory's consistency or accuracy and how the content of the memory changes over time.
Describe the rate of forgetting observed by Hirst et. al.
More information is lost between Surveys 1 and 2, and not nearly as much is lost between 2 and 3. Therefore, the rate of forgetting is slower.
What was the relationship between consistency for personal emotions and consistency for other information?
Overall measures of consistency were significantly greater than measures of consistency associated with the probe involving the respondent's emotional response. (Less consistent in reporting their emotions.)
What was the relationship between confidence and consistency regarding flashbulb memories?
Confidence ratings of flashbulb memories were high even though the memories were not consistent across surveys. Decline in confidence was not significant.
What is the "Michael Moore effect"?
The increase in accuracy from survey 2 to 3 about reporting President Bush's location during the 9/11 attacks (Florida elementary school). Very possibly due to the increased attention that Michael Moore's film Fahrenheit 911 brought to Bush's reading of "The Pet Goat" at the elementary school.
The rate of forgetting ______ over time for ______________ and ______________.
1) slows 2) flashbulb memories 3) event memories
What were the five "predictors" that Hirst et. al. used to analyze flashbulb and event memories?
Residency Personal loss/inconvenience Emotionality Ensuing conversation Media attention
What were the good predictors of flashbulb memories?
None of the 5 predictors appeared to influence consistency of flashbulb memories.
What factors predicted accuracy of event memories? Which two were the most important?
4/5 factors influenced event memory: - Residency - Personal loss/inconvenience - Ensuing conversation - Media attention The two most important were: ensuing conversation and media attention.
Describe the mistakes made in flashbulb and event memories over time.
In flashbulb memories, inconsistencies are REPEATED over time. In event memories, mistakes are CORRECTED over time.
What is similar and what is different about the rate of forgetting for flashbulb and event memories?
Similar: The pattern in the rate of forgetting was the same for both types over 3 years. Different: There was no relation between flashbulb memories and the 5 predictors, but there were significant relations for 4/5 of the factors and event memories. Also, inconsistencies were repeated for flashbulb memories, but mistakes were corrected for event memories.
Describe Sperling's experiment on sensory memory.
First experiments: Subjects briefly shown 3 rows of 4 letters, followed by blank field. When asked to recall, could only recall 4 letters. When asked to recall one line, could only recall 3/4 letters. Since the subject did not know which line he was going to be asked to recall, it implies that 3/4 of all letters were PERCEIVED, but lost during process of recall. Later experiments: Delay between presentation and cue was varied, and longer delay causes decline in performance. With bright field before and after letters, performance declined rapidly. With dark field before and after letters, performance was enhanced.
Define "span", describe its relation to echoic memory, and describe how rhythm and rhyme affect it.
Span -- tests used to determine "digit span" Speaking the sequences aloud improves performance because articulating and hearing the sounds of the numbers registers them in your brief echoic memory store. Grouping the number rhythmically reduces tendency to recall them in the wrong order.
Define chunking.
Ability to create "chunks" out of sequences of letters or numbers; improves the capacity of immediate memory.
Describe the Peterson & Peterson experiment.
Subjects were presented with sequence of 3 unrelated constants. Immediately after, subject shown 3-figure number and asked to start counting backwards from it in 3s. After 3-18sec interval, subject had to recall the original 3 consonants. Forgetting increased on subsequent trials.
When the retention intervals were longer --> memory became worse. How does this relate to evidence for decay vs. interference?
Decay -- originally thought to be cause of worse memory, because the trace left by the triplet sequences faded with longer retention intervals. Interference -- later discovered that first and even second trials showed little forgetting. Later triplets showed drastic forgetting, due to interference from previous sequences of letters.
Describe "proactive interference" and "release from PI".
Proactive interference -- interference that occurs because of confusing the words presenting earlier with the words you are currently trying to remember. Only if the two sets of words are in the same category. Release from PI -- improvement of performance that occurs when the category of words is changed. Provides a way to avoid confusing the earlier words with the current words.
Describe Baddeley's experiment on free recall. How does it differ from serial recall? Describe the serial position effects (3).
Free recall -- subjects presented with a string of items to remember and must recall them but can do so in any order. In serial recall, subjects must recall the items in the order in which they were presented. Serial position effects: - Subjects do moderately well on earlier and middle items, but rather better on last one or two items. Primacy effect Recency effect
Describe the "primacy effect".
Effects of different factors on performance when recalling items presented earlier in the list (rate of presentation, familiarity with the material, etc.)
Describe the "recency effect". How is it affected and abolished?
Tendency of the last few items in a list to be well-recalled, unaffected by many other factors that influence performance. Abolished by being prevented from recalling immediately.
Functional dissociation between primacy and recency shown by Baddeley as evidence for separate systems of STM and LTM.
Rate -- slow presentation leads to better performance on earlier items, but has no affect on later performance. Familiarity -- familiar material is better remembered, but also only affects earlier items, not later items. Distraction/divided attention -- being asked to do another task at the same time impairs performance Age -- elderly subjects remember less than younger subjects, but again has no affect on later items, only earlier items.
Brain-damage evidence shown by Baddeley as evidence for separate systems of STM and LTM.
STM deficits are associated with damage to the left hemisphere (close to speech areas). Difficulty learning new material, free recall is bad, etc. However, show normal recency and good performance on memory span, which show that LTM is spared. LTM deficits associated with damage to temporal lobes of cortex and to hippocampus and mamillary bodies. Memory span may be limited and recency may be limited. However, normal learning ability exists, so STM is spared.
Describe the dissociation between meaning vs. sound as it relates to STM and LTM.
STM is processed largely in terms of speech sounds, and LTM depends primarily on meaning. This is a functional dissociation.
Baddeley's 2 experiments proving dissociation between meaning and sound, and STM and LTM.
Experiment 1: Subjects were presented with different sequences of 5 words, each of which were grouped based on similar sounds or meanings. Had to write down the list in the order presented, and the words that sounded alike were much harder to recall, whereas similarity of meaning only had a slight influence on performance. Experiment 2: Same experiment, but this time to look at LTM, so length of lists were extended and each list was presented 4 times. Effects of similarity of sound disappeared, and the words that gave the subjects most trouble were lists with similar meanings.
What are the 3 major constituents of the Atkinson and Shiffrin modal model?
- An LTM concerned with storing info over extensive periods of time - An STM that manipulates and stores sensory info and feeds into the LTM - Series of sensory registers that are micro-memories associated with perception, and which feed into the STM
What were Atkinson and Shiffrin's ideas about rehearsal?
Only way to learn new material and commit it to LTM was via the short-term store. Method used by short-term store that they studied most was subvocal rehearsal.
What were the problems with Atkinson and Shiffrin's rehearsal view? (patients and experiments)
Patients: Brain-damaged patients exist with poor STM but unimpaired long-term learning Experiments with normals: Subjects had to hold a series of words in STM for some period, and then without prior warning, subjects were asked to recall as many of the previously presented words as possible. There was no evidence that holding a particular word in STM for longer increased the chances of it passing into LTM.
Describe Baddeley's levels of processing approach (deep vs. shallow).
Deep processing -- processing info in terms of meaning; may lead to better retention Shallow processing -- processing info in terms of basic characteristics, such as visual, auditory, etc.
Describe Baddeley's 3-component system of working memory.
- A central executive, or core system, exists that controls the overall system and is assisted by a number of "slave systems". - A visuo-spatial sketchpad - A phonological loop
What is the basic idea behind the phonological loop?
It is a component of STM that involves a process of rehearsal, usually via subvocal speech.
Describe the 3 clusters of evidence for the phonological loop.
1) Phonological similarity effect -- shown by tendency for subjects' errors to be phonologically similar to the correct item. 2) Immediate recall of visually presented digits could be disrupted when one is asked to ignore irrelevant spoken material. 3) Experiments linking word length and increased memory span. Short words are easier to remember, most likely because subjects are repeating the words under their breath to remember them, and shorter words take less time to repeat, therefore giving more time to rehearse and remember more words.
Describe "articulatory suppression" and its effects on STM performance.
Articulatory suppression -- preventing rehearsal by requiring subjects to generate repetitive speech. Affects performance because subjects are unable to transfer visually presented material to phonological short-term store.
What task(s) are not affected by articulatory suppression?
Reading is not affected by articulatory suppression, because we do not usually sound the words out when we read. Only people learning to read do this. We don't need to produce the sound of a word to understand it, and we can most likely hear the word without producing the sound.
Describe "deep dyslexics". What do they suggest?
People who have great difficulty in reading words aloud and are incapable of reading out pronounceable non-words. Also have problems in reading abstract words (hope, justice) but find imageable words (castle, trombone). This suggests that it is possible to understand a word approximately but not be able to access its spoken sound.
Phonological loop as it relates to language comprehension and acquisition (patient PV).
Had very pure deficit in auditory STM following a stroke - Had problems with certain complex long sentences, but effects were not large. This suggests that the loop may be only a backup process in language comprehension. - Tried to teach her Russian vocab. She was terrible at associating an unfamiliar Russian word with its Italian equivalent. This suggests that the loop is specialized for language learning.
Phonological loop as it relates to language comprehension and acquisition (normal subjects).
With articulatory suppression and language learning: Subjects show impaired capacity for learning foreign vocab With articulatory suppression and word association: Subjects showed no effect on capacity to associate words in the native language
Relationship between phonological loop and language acquisition (developmental evidence).
In verbally impaired kids: Children with specific language deficit had marked deficit in hearing and repeating back non-words. Most likely a deficit in phonological loop. Correlations with non-impaired kids: - Non-word repetition correlated highly with vocab.
Bottom line for phonological loop's relationship to language.
Loop seems important for crucial task of language acquisition. Adults with disruption to this system do not have too many problems, as long as they don't have to learn new languages.
Evidence for the idea that we store images in the brain (4).
Paper-folding: Time it took to complete task was directly related to number of folds the subjects had to make. Rotation: Linear relationship between time to make comparison and angular difference between two sets of blocks. Boat-scanning: Greater distance that needed to be scanned along the length of the boat to locate a detail = greater time to give answer. Zoom view: Size of objects being compared had an effect on how long it took the subject to answer.
Baddeley's general view of how images are stored in the brain.
LTM uses abstract representations to store spatial info. However, if we want to display and manipulate such info in our mind, we have a spatial slave system that depends on the central executive of the working memory system for its functioning.
Describe Brooks interference study.
Subjects shown a capital block letter and asked to hold it in their mind. Had to identify each corner as "yes" or "no" -- describing whether or not it included a line that was on the bottom or top of the letter. Had to respond "yes" or "no" in one of two ways -- either by pointing to the words located on a screen, or simply by saying them. Subjects found it more difficult to point to the words. Second task in which subjects had to remember a sentence and then classify each word as noun or non-noun. Easier to point than to speak in this one.
Describe evidence that suggests that visual imagery is spatial.
Brooks interference task was disrupted by non-visual SPATIAL activity. But was not disrupted much by non-spatial VISUAL activity.
Describe the evidence that suggests that visual imagery can exist separate from spatial.
Brain-damaged soldier could identify objects but not locate them spatially. (Identified a pocketknife but reached in wrong direction when trying to grab it.)
Describe evidence that spatial imagery can exist separate from visual.
Some patients have normal spatial skills, but have lost capacity to form color images. Can't answer questions like "What color is a banana?"
What parts of the brain are involved in visual imagery? In spatial imagery?
Visual: Depends on occipital lobes Spatial: Reflects activity in parietal region around center of brain. Frontal lobes may also be involved.
What is the evidence that imagery may play an important role in long-term learning?
1) There is a strong relationship between imageability of a word and the easy with which it can be memorized. 2) Imaging plays an important role in mnemonic strategies.
Are the visuospatial scratchpad and LTM imagery related? (2 experiments)
E1 -- Subjects presented with a list of pairs, half were concrete, half were abstract. For half of the pairs, subject devoted attention entirely to learning. For other half, subjects were required to perform tracking task. Concrete pairs much better remembered, and tracking task slightly impaired performance, but impairment was equal for both types of pairs. E2 -- Taught subjects mnemonic with strong spatial component (remembering each component of a list by placing each one at a location along a path). Under normal conditions, mnemonic = subjects performed consistently better. However, spatial tracking task disrupted the mnemonic. This suggests that manipulation and location of images used in mnemonics DOES depend on visuo-spatial sketchpad.
Definitions/assumptions associated with the "central executive".
It is assumed to be a limited-capacity attentional system that controls the phonological loop and sketch pad, and relates them to a LTM.
Describe the Daneman and Carpenter working memory span experiment (and its relationship with reading comprehension and intelligence).
Subjects presented with series of sentences, required to read each one, and then to recall the last word in each sentence. Link to language processing/reading comprehension: Good relationship between memory span and these variables. Link to intelligence: US Air Force has found that working memory span correlates highly with reasoning skills.
What are the two general components of working memory?
1) Short-term storage (on order of seconds): - Different frontal regions activated for storing different info. 2) Executive PROCESSES that operate on the contents of storage: - Selective attention and task management
Describe the verbal item-recognition task from Smith & Jonides. What aspect of working memory does it tap?
Involves showing (i) fixation point, (ii) 4 uppercase letters, (iii) blank delay interval, and (iv) one lowercase probe. Subject must decide whether probe matches any of 4 target letters. Taps short-term storage for verbal info.
Describe the verbal 2-back task from Smith & Jonides. What aspect of working memory does it tap?
Each letter is presented separately and followed by a blank delay interval, and subject must decide whether presented letter matches the one 2 back in the sequence. Involves executive processes (temporal coding) and storage of verbal material.
Describe the object item-recognition from Smith & Jonides. What aspect of working memory does it tap?
Trial includes (i) sequence of 3 target faces, (ii) blank delay interval, and (iii) probe face. Subject must decide whether probe is same as any of target faces. Involves short-term storage for object info.
Describe the spatial item-recognition task from Smith & Jonides. What aspect of working memory does it tap?
Trial includes (i) sequence of 3 target faces, (ii) blank delay interval, and (iii) probe face. Subject must decide if probe's face is in same position as any of 3 target faces. Taps short-term storage for spatial info.
Describe iconic memory.
Ex -- flashed series of pictures of many different objects very quickly, and then asked if there was a car?
Describe an example of short-term memory vs. working memory.
Short-term memory -- showed pictures of 12 objects, and asked to name as many as you can, in order. Working memory -- showed objects, and asked to name as many as you can, in ALPHABETICAL order.
Define noetic, anoetic, and autonoetic memory. Classify the different types of memory as one of these three.
Anoetic memory -- memory that one has without necessarily knowing that you have it. - Procedural and PRS (priming) Noetic -- you know you have it, but don't have to know where you got it from - Semantic Autonoetic -- having the knowledge that it previously happened to you - Episodic
What brain area does declarative memory require?
Describe habituation and sensitization.
Habituation -- not feeling clothes or shoes after they've been on for a while. Sensitization -- little sibling kicking back of your seat, your anger makes you that much more sensitive to the kicking
Describe the "extreme systems view" vs. the "extreme processes view".
Extreme systems view = different kinds of memory are interdependent from each other and depend on different brain regions. Extreme processes view = one "memory"; difference is in how you access it (process)
What types of memory are the hippocampus, frontal regions, and temporal regions involved in?
Hippocampus -- seems to be involved in episodic memory and learning new semantic memories Frontal -- control and retrieval of memory Temporal -- storing memory
Pros and cons of event-related potentials (ERPs).
- Good temporal resolution - Not so good spatial resolution
Pros and cons of positron emission tomography (PET).
- Involves radiation - Relatively slow - Can target specific chemicals (e.g. dopamine)
Describe the brain activations observed in the Sharot et al. study about flashbulb memories (9/11 vs. summer before 9/11)
LESS activatoin in parahippocampal cortex (less detail?) MORE activation in amygdala
What brain regions seem to be involved in the rehearsal process?
Frontal speech areas (Broca's area and left supplementary motor areas and premotor areas) likely mediate subvocal rehearsal.
What brain regions seem to be involved in the phonological buffer?
Evidence from neurological patients suggests that posterior parietal region mediates the phonological storage buffer.
Which brain regions are more involved in language: those involved in the phonological store or the rehearsal process? How does this relate to why the phonological loop is interfered with by articulatory suppression?
The frontal regions seem to be recruited to keep verbal info active in working memory. This means that the brain regions involved in the rehearsal process are more related to language. This relates to articulatory suppression because the phonological loop involves rehearsing verbal info to keep it in STM. Articulatory suppression inhibits the use of language to keep the verbal info in STM, and therefore interferes with the loop.
Compare and contrast the brain regions involved in the storage of spatial vs. object storage.
Spatial memory cells located primarily in right premotor area. Object memory cells spread from premotor to DLPFC Therefore, spatial info is represented more dorsally in PFC than object info.
What are the two organizational principles in the PFC?
1) Modality Verbal = left-hemisphere speech areas such as Broca's and left SMA and PMA Object = represented more ventrally than spatial, and likely in right DLPFC Spatial = represented more dorsally than object, and likely in in premotor cortex. 2) Processes: executive vs. nonexecutive Ventrolateral regions mediate operations needed to sustain storage Dorsolateral (DLPFC)implement executive processes.
What are the five different types of executive processes?
1) Attention and inhibition 2) Task management 3) PLANNING sequence of tasks to accomplish a goal 4) MONITORING to determine the next step in a sequential task 5) CODING representations in working memory
Describe the Stroop task.
Subjects were presented with a set of names of colors printed in different colors, and had to report the print colors.
Describe the results of the Stroop task and of a memory task with familiar but incorrect items. What brain regions are associated with each of these tasks?
Stroop task: Performance poorer when print color differs from color name. Suggests that anterior cingulate (which is activated) may be involved in resolving such conflict. Memory task with familiar but incorrect items: Conflict of familiar but incorrect items in a verbal item-recognition task led to activation of left lateral premotor cortex, not anterior cingulate.
What do the anterior cingulate and frontal areas do, based on results from the Stroop and "familiar but incorrect probes" tests?
Anterior cingulate region may mediate inhibition of pre-programmed responses. In contrast, frontal site activation in item-recognition studies may reflect operation of attention and inhibition earlier in processing sequence.
What is the dual task experiment, and what brain regions does task management involve?
Subjects presented with series of numbers, and required to add 3 to first number, and subtract 3 from second number, and so on. Requires switching from one task to another. Three groups involved (one did one task, one did another task, and the third did both tasks). Only dual-task group showed activation of frontal areas, including DLPFC and anterior cingulate.

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