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learning and memory


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different types of memory often work together or interact and can use multiple types of memory to complete a task-somtimes even think you are using one type of memory, but actually use another
Iconic memory
visual memory that only last a few seconds ex. flashed items on screen for a second, and then asked 'where is the car'?
Short Term Memory
-Type of memory we are aware of and that we can bring back -We have short term memory of about 7 items ex. Showed items and asked to study them for a minute or so, then asked to name as many items as possible, in order
Working Memory
Short term memory + organizational component example: after studied items for a minute or so, asked to name as many as possible in alphabetical order
Episodic Memory
Memory for particular incidents/recollect personally experienced events; type of declarative memory ex: free recall, cued recall, recognition -remember: flashbulb memory uses episodic component -ex: you are shown a bunch of images, and then a delay. You are then shown 6 different cars and asked which one did you see before? (this is specifically recognition memory)
Semantic Memory
acquisition and retention of general knowledge about the world; type of declarative memory ex: word fleuncy, vocabulary, primed and unprimed category association, sentence completion -remember: event memory has semantic component ex: would use if shown a picture of a car and asked "what is this?"
Declarative Memory
Conscious, deliberate memory that (in humans) can be articulated or declared. examples: semantic, episodic
Non-declarative memory
Type of memory that is difficult to put into words ex. kind of memory used when riding a bike (procedural), or priming
Two views of short term memory's relation to long term memory
1) Long and short memory= same system, but short term memory used under special circumstances which lead to little retention 2) Separate systems, but similarly integrated in operation (Baddeley supports this and thinks it is a complex set of interacting subsystems called working memory)
6 canonical features of flashbulb memory that people remembered (or claimed to remember), as identified by Brown and Kulik
1) the source of the info/how they learned it 2)where they were 3)what they were doing beforehand 4)what they did/what happened immediately afterwards (aftermath) 5) how they felt 6)how others felt
What conditions did Brown and Kulik specify were important for flashbulb memory?
-Suprise -High emotion/consequentiality
verbal item-recognition task
-test of mainly short term storage for visual information Task: -fixation point, then shown four uppercase letters, then a delay, then shown a lowercase letter and have to say whether it was one of the four target letters
Verbal 2-back task
-Tests executive processes (temporal coding) and verbal material storage Test: -each letter followed by a blank delay interval, and participant has to decide whether each letter has the same name as the one that occurred two back
object-item-recognition task
-uses short term storage of object information Test: -shown a sequenc of three target faces, then a lank delay interval, then a probe face and have to decide if the probe face was the same as any of the target faces
spatial-item -recognition task
-short term storage for spatial information -Test: -shown a sequence of three target faces, then a blank delay interval, then a probe face and have to decide whether the probe face is in the same location as any of the target faces
Two general components of working memory
1) short term storage 2) executive processes
perceptual representation system (PRS) a.k.a priming
-identification of perceptual objects -systems involved in representing the form or appearance of stimuli before (or independent of) meaning. Automatic changes in these systems as a result of prior exposure result in priming. -specific, pre-semantic (even without knowing the meaning, easir and faster to process when seen/heard it before -there is both visual and auditory priming -ex: primed stem completion, primed fragment completion, primed identification of degraded words ex: shown mosaic-like picture that cannot really make out, then shown car picture, and maybe other pictures as well or other things with cars, and then shown mosaic again and asked "what is this?" -should be easier to see that it is a picture of the car after seeing the car picture ex: auditory priming: if heard song before, can recognize more easily when playing with static and cannot really hear it clearly
Procedural memory
-acquisiton and expression of motor, perceptual and cognitive skills, and simple conditioning ex: mirror reading, serial reaction time, rotor-pursuit ex: shown picture of a car and think of "how to drive one"
4 kinds of dissociations discussed in nyberg/tulving
1)Functional 2)Developmental 3)Pharmacological 4)brain-damaged
Functional dissocation
differential effect of an independent variable on performance on two tasks supposed to reflect two distinct systems
Developmental dissociation
-includes two different age groups and two measures reflecting separate systems
pharmacological dissociation
-asministration of one drug (+ control/placebo group) or a different drug to each group, and measures of 2 separate systems
brain damage dissociation
single case or group of patients with irreversible brain damage and measures 2 separate systems
Brain areas declarative systems may depend on
medial temporal lobe structures -PET data shows cerebellum play a role in semantic and episodic memory -frontal lobe structures critical for episodic memory
Brain areas nondeclarative systems may depend on
occipital regions
the view assumed (often by non-psychologists) that psychological theories should ahve the final aim of giving a physiological account of psychological facts
process where a stimulus that intially evokes a response gradually gets reduced when it is repeated in the absence of a positive or negative outcome
a behavioral response where an independent stimulus increases the likelihood of a response
long term potentiation
-biological mechanism thought to underlie learning and memory -pre syn. releases glutamate, post syn. has NMDAr-get communication between the two neurons -cells associated with LTP numerous in hippocampus (which is important for learning and memory)
Self-report method
unsuccessful method of studying memory where subjects asked to describe their own memory, such as the vividness of an image, etc. -However, people differ a lot in their self-reports in ways that do not correlate with memory. Self reports often thought to be impacted by social desirability-feeling the need to give socially desirable answers.
Modal model
information comes in from the environment into brief sensory memory stores, and then goes into a short term store (temporary working memory) where it can go out to make a response, or feed into the long term store (permanent memory store), which can then feed back into the short term store to go out to make a response
Sperling's experiments on iconic memory
First experiment: shown three rows of four letters for brief period, followed by white light, then asked to recall letters; subjects got about 4 or 5 of the 12. Then asked to look at a specific row (told with tone after looked), and people could remember most in the row. Later experiments: -an increase in delay rapidly decayed memory -bright light caused faster decay in memory. -This led to the conclusion that retinal important for brightness of stimulus; brain importatnt for higher levels of proessing/integration more sensitive to pattern than to brightness
prospective memory
memory for the future ex: shown picture of a car, and think "need to change tires"
autobiographical memory
-memory for things in your life -usually thought of as episodic, but semantic component too -ex: shown a picture of a car and think "that day you nearly got ran over"
autonoetic vs. noetic vs. anoetic
-classifications by Tulving -autonoetic (I know it happened to me)=episodic memory =noetic (I know it happened but I don't know where i learned it/doesn't matter) = semantic -anoetic (I don't realize consciously that I know it or that I am using the knowledge = procedural, PRS
extreme systems vs. extreme processes
extreme systems: different kinds of memory are independent from each other and depend on different brain regions extreme processes view: one "memory"; difference is in how you access it compromise view: different processes supported by different brain regions/systems
3 critical features of cue only judgment of learning procedure
1) test mastery of concept but only after a meaningful delay 2) test using cues (such as fill in the blank or short answer) but not the actual answer 3)students should judge how well they think they know the correct answer to the question (since the whole idea of this cue only judgment is to better assess one's own concept of how well she knows the material
deep explanation
part of recommendation 7 in IES guide(ask deep questions to help students build explanations -explanations that include causal mechanisms, planning, logic and well-reasoned arguments
desirable difficulty
conditions that make learning slower and harder at first, but eventually lead to better long term learning and memory and or improved ability to apply knowledge to new situations ex: abstract (vs. concrete) explanations, spaced (vs. blocked in one day) practice -conditions that lead to fast/easy learning and immediate good performance usually lead to poor memory and generalization later on
functional dissociations between primacy and recency effects:
Primacy affected by RATE (better with slower rate of presentation), FAMILIARITY (better with more familiar material), AGE (better the younger you are), DISTRACTION/DIVIDED ATTENTION (worse with distractions) but recency not affected by these -primacy affected by long term memory, recency affected by short term memory
evidence for short and long term as two separate systems
1) Functional dissociations between primacy and recency (rate, familiarity, distraction/divided attention, age all affect primacy but not recency); recency is affected by a delay-recency is short term memory, primacy is long term memory 2) brain-damaged evidence (H.M. vs. PV)-also damage to left cerebal hemisphere in an area close to that involved in speech affects short term, whereas temporal lobes of cortex and deeper structures like hippocampus and mammillary bodies affect long term deficits 3) meaning vs. sound short term=sounds (acoustic coding) long term = meaning (semantic coding) 4) Brown-Peterson task (anything left after decay that able to retrieve seems to be LTM; harder when lists in same catagory (prospective interference as well as longer delay)
3 clusters of evidence for the phonological loop
1) acoustic/phonological similarity effect (common errors are similar in sound to right answer and sequence with similar sounds hard to remember) 2) immediate recall of visually presented digits disrupted when hear irrelevant speech 3) found clear link between word length and increased memory span (better on shorter words than longer words)
potential purpose of phonological loop
appears to be a checking mechanism that is good at preserving the order of information
frontal cortex vs. parietal lobe
frontal cortex=rehearsal process parietal lobe (BA40)= phonological buffer/storage/representation
verbal vs. spatial
verbal = mostly LEFT hemisphere spatial = mostly RIGHT hemisphere
Broca's area
speech production (rehearsal process)
spatial storage vs. object storage
spatial storage: right premotor cortex object storage: right DLPFC
anterior cingulate cortex
important for central executive functions, inhibition and conflict resolution
response conflict vs. familiarity conflict
response conflict: left ACC familiarty conflict: left DLPFC
posterior gyrus vs. anterior gyrus
posterior gyrus=memory retrieval anterior gyrus= central executive functions, inhbition and conflict resolution
deep dyslexics
have problems pronouncing non-words and abstract words, but find imaginable words much easier -the written word allows access to the meaning of the word, but not to its spoken form

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