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History 2211


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Examples of U.S. Continentalism between 1790 and 1890?
Lousiana Purchase, 1903
Florida 1819
Texas 1845
Oregon 1846
Mexican Cession 1848
Transcont. RR 1869
"End of the Frontier" 1890
What were the forces for international expansion?
Global Imperialism (Europe, Japan, Russia all doing it)
Christian Missionary Movement
Economic Markets
Who was the guy who promoted the building of the US Navy?
Alfred Thayer Mahan
What did Alfred Thayer Mahan write,when, and what was it about?
"The US Looking Outward" 1890
Sea Power = national power
big, modern navy needed
naval bases needed around the world
need a canal through central america
What happened in 1890 to build the US Navy?
Alfred Thayer Mahan published "THE US looking outward" and

The Naval Bill of 1890
Who did Alfred Thayer Mahan convert to wanting a big US navy?
Teddy Roosevelt
When was the Spanish-American war?
How long did the Spanish-American War last? Who won? What did they win?
about 4 months, US won Cuba, the Phillipines and other less important places
What were the causes of the Spanish-American War?
The "Free Cuba" movement
General Weyler, concentration camps in Cuba.
the "Yellow Press" - media get opinions
the Maine incident- Feb 15 1898
Explain the Maine incident
Occured on Feb. 15 1898, precipitated the Spanish-American War. a US battleship destroyed in Havana harbor, 260 men killed, cause unknown, then assumed to be Spanish mine
T/F The spanish american war promoted national unity
Who called the spanish-american war "That Splendid Little War"?
John Hay
The spanish-american war made a hero out of whom?
teddy roosevelt
what killed more in the Spanish-American War, combat or disease?
DISEASE (5200)
combat (450)
what's the phillipine dilemma?
After we helped liberate the phillipines from spain, now what? take over? we helped Emilio Aguinaldo lead the revolution, and now do we take over or let them self-govern?
so what did we do with the Philippine Dilemma? who decided?
pres. McKinley decided to take over, but Emilio Aguinaldo wouldn't have it, so there was guerilla warfare 1898-1900
What was the US policy on citizenship for Indians in 1865?
Not citizens of the US.
miniature sovereign nations..
"domestic dependent nations"
What are the two basic types of citizenship? What was the US tradition?
jus soli = law of soil, birthright
jus sanguinis = bloodright

jus soli was the US tradition
hit up that 14th amendment
jus soli becomes law 1870..first definition of citizenship, still doesn't really settle it:

Elk vs. Wilkins (1884)
Were Indians citizens after the 14th amendment (1870)?
Elk v. Wilkens (1884) said NO

the Reformers v. Exterminators - MAYBE
Explain the reformers v. exterminators standpoints on the Indians
exterminators though that Indians were inferior race who would not survive the modern world.."social darwinism"

reformers believed that US should change the Indian culture to the US culture (assimilation)
so where did the fight between the reformers and exterminators lead (talkin about the Indians)?
Lead to the Dawes Act of 1887
explain the five points of the Dawes Act...and when was it?

Indians were US citizens
Abolished tribal gov'ts (strips power)
Partitioning of the Indian Land
Much land annexed by the US and sold, money pays for boarding schools
Boarding Schools (assimiliation)
did the Indians like the Dawes Act? what did they do?
no, they fought it

Lonewolf v. Hitchcock (1903)
-yes, Bureau of Indian Affairs in control
1840-1870, immigrants came mostly from where? how many? what gender?
some 300,000 male chinese immigrants
What are "Birds of Passage"
people who immigrate to the US to make money and then leave
Where did a lot of the male chinese immigrants go to and why?
California, for the Gold Rush, the RR, san fransisco
what was the labor called for chinese men working on the railroads?
"coolie labor"
When was the transcontinental railroad completed?
What trade did the chinese dominate?
Laundry trade
over time, 50% of Chinese in the US were California ________
Could the Chinese immigrants be naturalized?
no, only "freed white americans and people of african descent" could be naturalized
What was the attitude toward the Chinese immigrants during the 1870s? why?
anit-chinese movement, because of economic depression. "Yellow Peril" was blaming the chinese.
Workingmen's Party of CA, 1877, "The Chinese Must Go!"
What was the Workingmen's Party of 1877?
"The Chinese Must Go!" workers in CA who deemed the Chinese "unassimalable"..."they'll never be like us"
What happened in 1882 to Chinese Immigration?
the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prohibited chinese from entering for 10 years, was renewable.
US chinese could go back to china, but not come into US
This was the first restriction ever placed on any immigrant group
What was the significance of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?
it was the first restriction placed on any immigrant group
When were the six cases fought by the Chinese to the US Supreme Court? how many did they win?
1882-1900, they lost all of them
What/When was US v. Wong Kim Ark?
a US born chinese guy left and tried to return, but they wouldn't let him, a test of the 14th amendment, jus soli.
What was the big deal with industrialization?
power of expectation: industrialization was unsettling because people didn't expect it to happen
What are pinkerton agents?
secret spying armies for large corporations, spying on labor unions, fighting strikes
1877 there was a bad railroad strike, where?
Pittsburgh PA
what happened at the Westinghouse in 1904?
in St. Louis, the World's Fare, showing innovations in electricity
What business sought international expansionism for new markets?
American shoemakers..chinese needed shoes
so there was Anti-Imperialism after the Spanish-American war, but what were the rebutalls against that?
it would be worse to lose the Phillipines to Germany

The Phillipines aren't ready to govern themselves.
What were the END results of the Spanish-American war?
the beginnings of American Expansionism

they gave the Phillipines limited self gov't, but maintained economic control and influence, and maintained a naval base there
Who first tried to build the Panama canal? why couldn't they?
France. it was too difficult, people kept dying of malaria.
What years was World War I?
Who were the Central powers? Who were the Allied powers? (in world war one)
central powers-Germany, Austria-Hungary

allied powers - France, Britain, Russia
what were the new elements of war in WWI?
trench warfare, poison gas, new weapons, automatic fire
what was the initial US response to WWI?
Shock and Disgust, they wanted to stay out of it, wanted peace
T/F WWI caused an industrial and economic depression in the US
FALSE. it was a huge industrial boom, weapons sale and stuff
what happened in the election of 1916?
Woodrow Wilson stays president on a PEACE AND PROSPERITY platform, cuz most wanted peace
what were the causes for the US entering the war?
German submarines - U boats
Zimmerman Telegraph
talk about the U-boats of WWI
they were German submarines that tried to stop US-English merchant ships carrying weapons. obviously a blunder by Germany b/c it got US into war, and we killed
what was the zimmerman telegraph?
1917, a telegram from Germany to Mexico offering post-war help to take back US land, in exchange for attachking the US.

this turns US against Germany explosively
When did the US go to war?
April 2, 1917, Wilson's famous call for war
T/F the US had to institute a draft for WWI
T, more than 2.2 million drafted
what was the name of the US troops that fought in France?
the American Expeditionary Force
what was the turning point of WWI?
July 18, 1918, US stops the momentum of Germany in France, Nov. 18 was the ceasefire
What were 2 consequences of WWI in the US?
the expansion of Federal Power

the demise of Woodrow Wilson
what happened in the summer of 1919?
the "Red Summer" of 1919, an anti-communist campaign by the federal gov't.

also "red" b/c of bad race riots in the North, Chicago
what/when was the "Red Summer"?
1919, an anti-communist campaign by the federal gov't. also called 'red' b/c of bad race riots in the north/Chicago
T/F after WWI, the US were all about the military.
FALSE. they were anti-militarism. people wanted ISOLATIONISM
what was "waving the bloody shirt"
Northern Republicans making the Southern Democrats look bad, bringing up the Civil War
hit up that Election of 1896
McKinley (republican) is elected
what's social darwinism? who came up with a lot of the theories?
some races just won't make it

herbert spencer
who was Fredrick Jackson Turner?
an American historian and professor, he wrote
“The Significance of the Frontier in American History.”
who was the last independent ruler of hawaii?
queen liliuokalani
who annexed hawaii, and when? what else was going on?
pres. cleveland refused, but
pres. McKinley annexed Hawaii in July 1898

during the SPANISH-AMERICAN war
election of 1912
woodrow wilson (D) wins it.
what was the Gold Standard?
gold is the constant currency..paper money is used, but it can be exchanged for gold
what did the US have first, the Silver Standard or the Gold Standard. when was the switch?
started with the Silver Standard, but finding silver in West US made the dollar go down so in 1901 the Gold Standard Act switched to gold
what was the Cuban Insurrection?
it was the 2nd one, it started in 1895 led by Jose Marti

was the insurrection against spanish rule
what was the Boxer Rebellion?
the Boxers were the "Righteous and Harmonious Fists" in China fighting the imperial gov'ts of europe. the rebellion in 1900 took place mostly in beijing and was whooped by the West
what was the Roosevelt Corollary?
Teddy Roosevelt added it to the Monroe Doctrine, and it said that any attack on small, poor Latin countries violated the Monroe Doctrine
When was the official end of Reconstruction?
1877, nore more N. troops in the south
what decade was the "Crisis Decade"?
the 1890s
talk about disfranchisement during the 1890s
blacks effectively lost the vote
"bulldozing" was killing voters
literacy tests, grandfather clause, and poll tax made it hard for blacks to vote.
what was the voting age during the 1890s?
what decade saw the most lynchings?
the 1890s, the gov't never responded, the North was apathetic

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