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C.C. Zonino 1


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(earls)- nobility, priest- gothis ruled acording to law, this was not written down until 1100 AD, befor this time, laws were based on tradition and opinions of migration.
Freemen, farmers, merchants
(slaves),slaves from Ireland, Finland, Germany, slavic nation
"out cast" or "nothing"
were freemen (who were landowners) would vote for leaders and pass laws. they set taxes, check men's weapons, investigate murders
king of all gods (wooden wednsday)
son of Odin and earth, god of law and order, god of thunder
Odins wife, known for kindness and beauty
the firtillization gods, worshiped by farmers who made crops grow
warrior gods worshiped by warriors
the hall of the chosen one. Feasting, partying and fighting each other all noght long (Viking warriors only) thourought eternity
warrior madens who led the warriors that were on their way to Valhalla
payment in gold (or wealth/$), made to Vikings by victims to spare their lives and go away
(10 in total) there are either magical runes or practical runes
the Viking alphabet
a heavenly place, the gods lived there
world of humans (Vikings, Skraelings) (surounded by an ocean, inhabeted by a serpent)
home of the forest giants (Niflheim- Icy place of eternal darkness)
tails of Viking expoits, often passed down by word of mouth, then finally recorded during the 13th century by christian monks.
latitude sailing
method of navagation which uses sun and stars to locate the latitude they wish to sail along and then they will use that to reach land (before the compase)
Eric the red
he had a red beard and hair, fiery temper. he descovered Green land- its milder in temperature than what is is now- they can grow barley, raising sheep and goats. it will last this way for 400 years until the climate changed.
Leif Ericson
"leif the lucky". He descovered Vinland (named for the wine and grapes). Present day NEW FOUND LAND, Canada. It deals with wretched (Scraelings)- eskimos
William the conqurer
duke of Normandy- was not English- but claims the throne because of a promise Eduard the confesser made to him- they were friends and Eduard promised William the throne. William will attempt to take thone by force when others challenge this claim
Harold Hardrada
of Normandy- the "last Viking" tried to seize the throne of England with his huge navel fleet, but he dies in the fighting in September 1066
Eduard the confessor
He was an English king. He died with no son to take over so...
2 men wanted the throne
1.Herold Hardrada
2.William the conqurer
they were evil creatures. They lived in the mountains by the ocean. They preformed trickery and majic
mischapen, ugly, wartfaced, little creatures who lived in caves and are gready
prepared for battles by eating plants and other foods that drugged them up and made them crazed
Novgorod and Kiev
vikings settled in this town in Russia and set up trading stations in these towns
king (viking word for king) might rule over a small section of land
peacful by nature and wont resist. the monks were pacifists
a bay (where they would dock ships)
why does prospariy mean more then population growth?
If you have...
1. good climate
2. fertile soil
3. sufficiant crops

then you will get
1. people in community feel confident that they can support a larg population - theres enough resourses to care for them

2. "word is out" that this region is a happening place and people will succeed

3. larg popilation becomes your work force

4. large work force can prduce more items- crops, products to trade

5. more resources= more food, better food, long life span, healthier people and better healthcare)

6. more $ also means- better suplies, better weapons

7. you have more soldures attracted to area
who Vikings selected as targets and why?
they selected the Monasteries as targets, because...

1. Monks + monastaries are seats of great wealth- sacred relics and religion. items made of gold (chalice) stained glass.

2. They are pacifists/ peacful by nature + wont resist

3. Christians are their enemies

4. Monks are contemplative- spend lifetimes in prayer
"tree of life"
it connects all of the world
an icy place of eternal darkness
what was the purpose of the runes?
there were 2 different types of Runes. they were the majical and the practical runes. The magical runes were used to...
1.blunt enymys weapons.
2.break "chain"
3.cast spells
4.cure illnesses
5.guard against withches
6.prottect in battel or at sea

the practical runes were used to...
1.label swords (ownership)
2.keep records of trade merchants, transaction
Leif Ericson descoverd Vinland when he landed on the cost of North America. he found wild grapes. Vinland is now called Canada.
Long ships
these ships were designed to be able to sail well in shallow water as well as open sea
the final battle that would be known as the end of the world
comes from the Norse word "pirate"
the local people of Russia refured to the local Norsemen as Russe. The Vikings actually named Russia after themselves.
it was not a king who made the desisions for the comunity about the going to battles and things like that. the vikings were governed by a council.
monestary that was robbed in the 12 centry that was recorded by a monk named simon of Durhan. The vikings were blood thirsty and brutle and they lotted the sacred relics and drownd the monks to try to protect themselves.
Battle of the Hastings
William the Conquerer took the English throne by force he had 700 ships and 10,000 men. He would become the king of England.
the hammer that Odin used. he would throw it and the hammer would come back to hime.
Thors magical hammer which would return to him when throne
where the Vikings lived
the godess of the underworld
What was the importance of the viking ships?
The Viking ships were used for battle and trade. they were also used for sailing in shallow waters as well as the open seas
Why did the Vikings launch raids on Europe?
1.Poor farmlands in Scandanavia meant an impoverished existance for the Norseman. They turned their attention to the richer, fertile farmland of Europe, but because the area was already densly populated, the Norsemen resorted to invaseion by force

2. Improved ships' design- LONGSHIPS- that were designed to sail well in shallow water as well as in open sea

3.Some historians speculate that changes in the wather made sea travel easier

4.Population explosion viewed as a motive for Vikings to seek new land at other's expence
Methods of acquring wealth- raiding or traiding
1.In traiding you must give to get...

2.But in raiding you may take whatever you want whithout giving

3.The trade might not be a fair exchange- there's always a posibility of being cheeted

4.In trading you wont get money- Vikings want actual coins, $, wealth

5.Vikings want to avoid the traiding tax (10% import export) in Byz. Empire

6.Vikings can pick and choose in raiding- but in trading you have to take what the other is willing to give and more

7.For the recreational value, raiding is more fun (sport in life)

8.Prefered to keep their reputations as brutal barbarians because with this reputation the victims hand things over.

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