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plants in human affairs


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What is an alkaloid?
it's a combination of C, H, O, and N = poisonous
Why is there wax in plants?
to protect from UV rays
How does it happen that Sorghum plants kill yuou when you eat a young plant?
epidermis vacuole contains DHURRIN
How is sugar cane planted?
propagation? perennial
what is a gycoside?
a compund of sugar with another, physiologically active, organic molecule.
What is a triglyceride?
a glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids
What's a drupe? give example
-1 seeded
-thin exocarp
-fleshy meso
-stony endocarp
ex. - plums, cherries, peaches, coconut
How is Tempeh made
1. Cook soybeans
2. inoculate with rhizopus (black bread mold)
What's Lecithin?
a phosphoglyceride; mixed phospholipids and soybean oil (wetting and emulsifying agent, PAM, gum)
What three oils are simply labeled vegetable oil because they are indistinguishable?
cottonseed, soybean, palm
What is important about the discovery of Zea diploperennis?
it has 20 chromosomes and resistant to insect pests and disease
What three categories do plants, relating to man's health, fall into?
-to alter state of mind
-health and nutrition
-to injure
What is cocoa butter?
white chocolate is cocoa butter which solidifies to a brittle pale yellow
How did sweet clover cause the death of cattle?
it contained dicoumarin (grew in the mold in moldy hay)
How is fructose obtained from corn?
by adding an enzyme to the glucose
How is tofu made?
1. crush soy beans
2. heat them to near boiling
3. remove resulting liquid (soy milk)
4. coagulate milk with NaCl
5. press curds
What is unusual about the flowers from the cocoa tree?
They are cauliforus?
Why is soybean an ideal food for vegetarians?
it's high in protein and it contains essential amino acids.
Describe a corn plant. WHat does it look like?
-male inflorence - tassle contains male spiklets dangling from upper floret
-silks, adherent pollen grains extend from pistal to female spiklet in the ear
-contains nodes below the ear, have arudementary ears w/ reduced grain set
What does digitalis (Foxglove)do as a medicine?
-heart stimulant, causes stronger contraction, more blood flow (to treat dropsy)
Where does the cocoa tree grow?
It only grows 20 degrees above and below the equator.

(Ivory Coast produces 50% of the worlds cocoa)
Who was Dioscordies?
an army surrgeon under Nero, wrote "De Materia Medica" an herbal listing.
dent corn
-principal commercial feed
-white or yellow (white is hominy)
-hard, horny endospern
-found in cornmeal
What unusual about the leaves of the cocoa tree?
double articulation: they can catch light from the canopy
What is the Doctrine of Signatures?
developed in the middle ages by Peracelsus; plant remedy
besides the ovary, what other tissue make up a fruit?
-sepal bundle
-petal bundle
-floral tube
-dorsal and out layer of carpel
Name one bark used in medicine
Fever-Bark Tree
Why are two sperm present in each grain of pollen?
double fertilization
-one combines with egg
-one combines polar nuclei (making endosperm)
Why is raw sugar better for you than white?
contains iron and protein (white doesn't)
What determines fruit quality in grapes
Why is it good advice to eat potatoe skins?
protein is located next to the skin
Describe a corn kernal in terms of the tissues found. Where is the oil found?
-seed coat
-layer of protein under aleurone layer
-horny endosperm
-starchy endosperm
-embryo (oil found here)
How is sugar extracted from sugar cane?
- crushed between rollers 3 or 4 times, and rinsed b/t each press
- lime added to press water to precipitate impurities
- filter and evaporate = crystals of raw sugar
- raw sugar redissolved in hot water
- filtered through charcoal (absorbes impurities)
- white sugar
what's a berry? give example
-compound ovary
-all pericarp is flesh except exocarp (skin-like)
ex - grapes, bananas, tomatoes
What is the difference between macaroni pasta wheat and bread wheat?
-macaroni wheat - (tetraploid)durum, sticky, starchy
-bread wheat - (hexaploid) contains glutenin and gliadin which trap gas and allow the dough to rise
what's a follicle? give example
-simple pistil
-1 side splits
ex - milkweed, magnolias, x-mas rose
What is meant by unsaturated fatty acid?
lots of double bonds b/t the C atoms
What is unique about the hard covering on a kernel of corn?
-called caryopsis
-ovary wall and seed coat are fused together
How is cassava prepared for eating?
to rid of linamarin
-peel tuber
-pound or shred
How is champagne made
Why is there a renewed interest in finding wild trees containing this bark?
malaria parasites are developing resisitence to our synthesized medicine, but not to quanine
How do you create a blush wine like White Zinfandel?
leave in the skins
How is sugar extracted from beets?
- wash
- slice or shred
- diffusion (steep in hot circulating water)
- press tissue
- precipitate w/ lime
- bubbling CO2 to precipitate CaCarbonate (carries down impurities)
(- pulp pressed into cake for cattle)
What changes take place in fruit as it ripens?
-starch to sugar
-chlorophyll break down
What is Semolina?
Durum wheat that is more coarsely ground than normal wheat flours, a result that is often obtained by sifting out the finer flour. Most good PASTA is made from semolina.
What are the three layers of the pericarp?
What's the difference between a fat and an oil?
fats - solid at room temp
oils - liquid at room temp
What's the difference between upland and lowland rice?
- Upland - non-irrigated, or irrigated but not pond flooded
- Lowland - continuously pond flooded
List the steps in wine making.
-(remove skins if white)
-crush grapes, remove seeds
used yeast (controlled)for fermentation
-clarification in settling vats (takes impurities to the bottom
-racking (removes CO2)
-aging (in a breathable container like oak)
Name the ingredients for "witches ointment"
fat of a stillborn
Explain the pericarp of a coconut.
-thin hairy exocarp
-fleshy mesocarp
-stony endocarp
What are the two by-products of sugar cane?
molasses and raw sugar
What is unique about wheat gluten?
insoluable in water...makes bread dry
What is a secondary plant product?
It something that the plant produces that is not essential for its survival, but attracts other organisms, so it will be used
pod corn
-kernals enclosed in floral bracts or glumes
-ears covered w/ husks
What's unusual about the sugar beet seed?
as the ovary matures, perianths fuse = several ovaries on a single seed -- "seed ball"
What problems occued when our N. American grape vine, Vitis labrusca, was introduced to Europe?
a symbiotic aphid on the root wiped out the native european wine population
What is the poisonous plant in "witches ointment?"
What is "raw sugar?"
unrefined sugar
How is a hybrid corn plant produced?
-self-fertilized for five generations
-single crossed
-double crossed
indica vs. japonica rice
- indica - long, fluffed when cooked
- japonica - short, sticky
-excessive horny endosperm
-kernals smaller than dent corn
-center of endosperm consists of cells w/ lots of water surrounded by harder drier tissue
How are rice seeds treated to be sown in an airplane?
-coated with sticky agent to hold layer of talc
What is an aggregate fruit?
-many separate pistils
-one flower
-many fruitlets
ex - raspberry
Why is the sweet potatoe a popular crop in Japan?
typhoon insurance
Why is high lysine corn an important genetic introduction?
lysine is an essential amino acid
How are liquid oils changed to solid for use in margarines?
hydrogen bonds are added
flour corn
-soft endosperm
-very little if any horny endosperm
-called soft or squaw corn
What's the reason that oil is found in seeds rather than starch?
Oil contains twice as much energy than starch
What is a multiple fruit? give example.
-formed from individual ovaries of several flowers
ex - figs, pineapples
What's the biggest problem with growing grapes in Iowa
herbicide drift
sweet corn
-wrinkled translucent seed with much sugar
-more sugar than field corn
-eat quickly - sugar starts to turn to starch once picked

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