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Agriculture- Human Geography

Terms

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Township-and-Range System
A rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior.
Hunting and gathering
A method of colledcting food before agriculture was developed.
Agriculture
The purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber.
Biotechnology
The use of gentically engineered crops in agriculture and DNA manipulation in livestock in orer to increase production.Increasingly applied to more advance stages of food production in the form of radiation of meats and vegetables to prolong their freshness.
Livestock ranching
The raising of cattle for meat and of sheep for meat and wool.
Animal domestication
The process of keeping animals as livestock and pets, which became possible when communities became more sedentary.
Second Agricultural Revolution
A time in which farming in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe underwen significant changes including modified tools, improvements in soil preparation and fertilization, and better organization of agriculture.
Commercial agriculture
An agricultural practice in which crops are grown for the purpose of export.
Building resources
Material available and used for building construction.
Third Agricultural Revolution
Agriculture based on new, higher-yielding strains of greains and other crops developed in laboratories using modern techniques of genetic engineering.
Brick
A traditional building material made of hard, oven-baked or sun-baked blocks of mud shaped into standard sizes.
Maladaptive diffusion
A diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality.
Dairying
An agricultural practice involving the delvelopment of dairy products.
Diffusion routes
The spatial trajectory throught which cultural traits or other phenomena spread.
Wattle
Traditional dwelling built using poles and sticks that are woven tightly together and then plastered with mud.
Domestic architecture
Architecture involving housing building forms. Sometimes referred to as "ordinary architecture," it includes elements such as houses, barns, garages, and even fences.
Green Revolution
The successful recent development of higher-yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries, which led to increased production per unit area and a dramatic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs.
Hamlet
The smallest settlement cluster.
Village
A rural settlement.
Nucleated settlement
A compact, closely packed settlement (usually a hamlet or larger village) sharply demarcated from adjoining farmlands.
Plant domestication
The consious cultivation of plants
Agribusiness
A general term for large-scale, mechanized industrial agriculture that is controlled by corporate interests.
Mediterranean agriculture
A type of specialized farming, which occurs in areas wher the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails.
Metallurgy
The technique of separating metals from their ores.
Dispersed settlement
In contrast to agglomerated or nucleated settlement, dispersed settlement is charaterized by a much lower density of population and thw wide spacing of individual homesteads (especially in rural North America).
Luxury crops
HIgh priced and high demand crops grown on plantations for the purpose of export.
Farming
A practice of growing food from the soil that developed around 12,000 years ago.
Shifting cultivation
Cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vvegetation has veen removed by cutting and burning. These clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forestland. Also know as slash-and-burn agriculture.
First Agricultural Revolution
The adoption of new techniques in farming, which occurred shortly after plant domestication.
Folk-housing region
A region in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area.
Agricultural origins
The locations where agriculture first began.
Traditional architecture
Architecture using material from the natural surroundings.
Functional differentiation
A mode of distinguishing things or arrangements based on the purposes or activities to which they are devoted.
Plantation agriculture
A large estate owned by an individual, family, or cooperation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives.
Th√ľnian patterns
A pattern in which each town or market center is surrounded by a set of concentrice rings within which particular commodities or crops dominate.
Subsistence farmers
Self-sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology and emphasizes food production for local consumption, not for trade.

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