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BioChem: Glycolysis


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What is metabolism?
-the entire netweork of chemical reactions carried out by living cells
What are metabolites?
-small molecule intermediates in the degradation and synthesis of polymers
What are catabolic reactions?
-degrade molecules to create smaller molecules and energy
What are anabolic reactions?
-synthsize molecules for cell maintenance, growth, and reproduction
What are the four major groups of biomolecules that undergo metabolism?
-amino acids
What is beneficial about multi-step pathways?
-permit control of energy input and output
-provide energy in smaller stepwise amounts (catabolic)
-each enzyme catalyzes only one step in pathway
-control points exist
-smaller amounts of energy are available for use of cell rather than one large energy source
What are the three major nutrients consumed by mamals and can be used as metabolic fuels and what are they used for?
-carbohydrates (energy)
-proteins (AA for protein synthesis and some energy)
-fats (triacylglycerides for energy and lipids for membrane synthesis)
What does compartmentation provide?
-separate pools of metabolites within a cell
-simultaneous operation of opposing metabolic paths
-high local concentrations of metabolites
-coordinated regulation of enzymes
What is an example of compartmentation in metabolism?
-fatty acid synthesis enzymes (cytosol)
-fatty acid breakdown enzymes (mitochondria)
What is the Golgi apparatus used for in metabolic processes?
-sorting and secreation of some proteins
What does the ER do in metabolic processing?
-delivers proteins and synthesizes lipids for membranes
What does the Nucleus do in metabolic processing?
-nucleic acid synthesis
What does the Nuclear and Plasm membranes do in metabolic processing?
What does cytosol do in metabolic processing?
-fatty acid synthsis
-most gluconeogensis reactions
-pentose phosphate pathway
What does teh mitochondrion do in metabolic processing?
-citric acid cycle
-oxidative phosphorylation
-fatty acid breakdown
What is the major source of energy for living cells and what is the major form of stored carbs in animals?
List the enzymes that catalyze each step of glycolysis starting with step 1.
-phosphoglucose isomerase
-triose phosphate isomerase
-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
-phosphoglycerate kinase
-phosphoglycerate mutase
-pyruvate kinase
Overall, what are the products of glycolysis?
-2 pyruvate
-2 ATP
For red blood cells, what is the free energy during glucose phosphorylation?
- (-33.9kJ/mol)
Which step of glycolysis is the reverse of an aldol condensation?
-reaction 4
After which reaction in glycolysis do two pathways begin in replicate?
-Reaction 5
What reactions in Glycolysis are Yeild Phase reactions (gives energy)?
-Reactions 7 and 10
Where is the site of action of arsenate?
-Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate DH
Step 1-5, what are the descriptions of each reaction?
1)Phosphorylation of glucose by hexokinase
2)Conversion of Glucose-6-Phosphate to Fructose-6-Phosphate
3)Phosphorylation of Fructose-6-Phosphate
4)Catalyzation by Aldolase
5)Interconversion of triose phosphates
Step 6-10, what are teh descriptions of each reaction?
-Oxidation of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate
-First ATP Synthesis
-Interconversion of 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate
-Dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate
-Second ATP production
What is the primary sugar used for energy in the cell?
What are some other carbohydrates that can yield energy in glycolysis?
Where are the most amounts of glycogen found?
-liver and muscle which can mobilize stored carbs using hormones and muscle contraction
What is the difference between glycogen and starch?
-glycogen has 9% branching and a molecular weight of 5,000,000
-starch has 4% branching and a mol weight between 50,000-1,000,000
In the liver, kidney, and intestine what hormone supplies blood glucose?
How is this done?
-Glucose-1-phosphate phosphatase
-G-1-P can be converted to G-6-P
How are glycogen stores mobilized?
-glucagon and epinephrine
What are the two forms of glycogen phosphorlyase and where are they found?
How do you get the inactive form to activate?
-active form Phosphorylase a
-inactive form Phosphorylase b
+treat liver slices with epinephrine
What affect does epinephrine treatment (on Phosphorylase b) have on membrane fraction?
How about cytoplasm?
-removes hormone
-activates hormone
What causes cAMP synthesis?
How does epinephrine cause cAMP snythesis?
-hormone binds to membrane receptor
-this causes GDP bound to G-protein to be replaced with DTP
-GTP bound to alpha subunit if G-protein diffuces to Adenylate Cyclase in the membrane
-GTP-bound G-protein activates Adenylate Cyclase
What does cAMP do?
-activates phosphorylase kinase (by activating Protein Kinase 1)
What does Phosphorylase kinase activate?
-glycogen phosphorylase
Overall, how does hormone control work starting with epinephrine?
-epinephrine activates adenylate cyclase to make cAMP
-cAMP activates Protein Kinase 1
-Protein Kinase 1 acrivates Phosphorylase Kinase which activates Glycogen Phosphorylase
What does Glycogen Synthase use to make glycogen?
What does Glycogen Synthase occur as?
When is Glycogen Synthase D dependent of Glucose-6-Phosphate?
-when it's phosphorylated
What are some glycogen storing diseases and what are they lacking?
-Cori's Disease: debranching enzyme
-Andersen's Disease: branching enzyme
-McArdle's disease: muscle glycogen phosphorylase
What are three glycolysis syndromes?
-fructose intolerance
-pyrucate kinase deficiency
-malignant hyperthermia

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