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biochem chapter 2


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cleavage of a bond, such as an anhydride or peptide bond, by the addition of the elements of water, yielding two or more products
formation of a bond accompanied by the release of the elements of water from the joining atoms
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation

an equation relating the pH, the pK{a}, and the ratio of the concentrations of the proton acceptor (A-) and proton donor (HA) species in a solution
a system capable of resisting changes in pH, consisting of a conjugate acid-base pair in which the ratio of proton acceptor to proton donor is near unity
titration cure
a plot of the pH versus the quivalents of base added during tiration of an acid
the negative logarithm of an equilibrium constant
dissociation constant K{a}
Equilibrium constants for ionization reactions are usually called ionization or dissociation constants, often
designated K{a}
conjugate acid-base pair
a proton donor and its corresponding deprotonated species; for example, acetic acid (donor) and acetate (acceptor)
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of an aqueous solution
ion product of water K(w)
the product [H+][OH-] in aqueous solutions at
25 C always equals [1x10^14] M
equilibrium constant K(eq)
a constant, characteristic for each chemical reaction; relates the specific concentrations of all reactants and products at equilibrium at a given temp and pressure
describes a solution of lower osmolarity than that from which it is separated by a semipermeable membrane
describes a solution of higher osmolarity than that from which it is separated by a semipermeable membrane
describes a solution of the same osmolarity as that from which it is spearated by a semipermeable membrane
bulk flow of water through a semipermeable membrane into another aqueous compartment containing solute at a higher concentration
hydrophobic interactions
the association of nonpolar groups, or compounds, with each other in aqueous systems, driven by the tendency of the surrounding water molecules to seek their most stable (disordered) state
an aggregate of amphipathic molecules in water, with the nonpolar portions in the interior and the polar portions at the exterior suface, exposed to water
containing both polar and nonpolar domains
nonpolar; describing molecules or groups that are insoluble in water
polar or charged; describing molecules or groups that associate with (dissolve easily in) water
bond energy
the energy required to break a bond
hydrogen bond
a weak electrostatic attraction between on electronegative atom (i.e. nitrogen or oxygen) and a hydrogen atom covalently linked to a second electronegative atom

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