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Biochem Chapter 1


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an inheritable change in the nucleotide sequence of a chromosome
The entire set of enzyme-catalyzed transformations of organic molecules in living cells; the sum of anabolism and catabolism
the phase of intermediary metabolism concerned with the energy-yielding degradation of nutrient molecules
the phase of intermediary metabolism concerned with the energy-requiring biosynthesis of cell components from smaller precursors
activation energy
the amount of engery (in joules) required to convert all the molecules in 1 mole of a reacting substance from the ground state to the transition state
the state of a system in which no further net change is occurring; the free energy is at a minimum
exergonic reaction
a chemical reaction that proceeds with the release of free energy (that is, for which delta G is negative
endergonic reaction
a chemical reaction that consumes energy (that is, for which delta G is positive
free energy change (Delta G)
the component of the total energy of a system that can do work at constant temp and pressure
the heat content of a system
the extent of randomness or disorder in a system
the spatial arrangement of substituent groups that are free to assume different positions in space, without breaking any bonds, because of the freedom of bond rotation
chiral center
an atom with substituents arranged so that the molecule is not superimposable on its mirror image
the spatial arrangement of an organic molecule that is conferred by the presence of either double bonds or 2 chiral centers around which sub. groups are arranged in a specific sequence
compouds that have the same composition and the same order of atomic connections, but different molecular arrangements
the filamentous network providing structure and organization to the cytoplasm; includes actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments
-one of the five kingdoms of living organisms
-Eubacteria have a plasma membrane but no internal organelles or nucleus
one of five kingdoms of living organisms
- includes many species that thrive in extreme environments of high ionic strength, high temp, or low pH
a bacterium; a unicellular organism with a single chromosome, no nuclear envelope and no membrane-bounded organelles
a unicellular or multicellular organism with cells having a membrane bounded nucleus, multiple chromosomes, and internal organelles
all the genetic information encoded in a cell or virus
in eukaryotes, a membrane bounded organelle that contains chromosomes
a chemical intermediate in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions of metabolism

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