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Biochem-glucagon & Insulin


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three parts of insulin molecule
a chain, b chain, c-peptide
how do you activate insulin
clip c-peptide
insulin is a _______ soluable molecule
normal blood glucose level
5mM; 60-90 mg/mL
1)insulin _____ blood glucose
2)glucagon _____ blood glucose
2) increases
what are the different typses of cells in the pancreas and what do they secrete
A cell = glucagon
B cells insulin
D cell = somatostatin
Asinine cells = proteolytic enzymes
How do pancreatic B cells know to secrete insulin?
Glut 2 –on pancreas & liver senses blood gluc
insulin peaks how many minutes after a high carb meal
60 min
effect on insulin in the muscle
stimulates glucose uptake and consumption
effect of glucagon on liver
stimulates glucose synthesis and export
insulin effects blood glucose in these ways by influencing what enzyme ?
1)increasing glucose uptake (mm, fat)
2)Increase glucose uptake (liver)
3)increased glycogen synthesis (liver, mm)
4)decrease glycogen breakdown
2)increased glucokinase expression
3)increase glycogen synthase
4)decrease glycogen phosphorylase
5)increase PFK 1 (by increase PFK2)
6)increase Acetyl CoA carboxylase (amphibolic,ABC)
7)increase lipoprotien lipase
What is utility of C peptide?
Check endogenous insulin levels by checking C – peptide
Exogenous = no C peptide
Check complience w/ insulin/C peptide ratio. In insulin complience this should be large.
Glucagon effects blood glucose in these ways by influencing what enzyme?
1)increasing glycogen breakdown(liver)
2)decreased glycogen synthesis
3)decreased glycolysis(liver)
4) increased gluconeogenesis (liver)
5)increase FA mobil
1)increased glycogen phosphorylase
2)decreased glycogen synthase
3)decreased PFK-1
4)increase FPBase-2
5)increase triglycerol lypase phosphorylation
6)increase Acetyl Co-A (amphibolic, ABC)carboxylase
physiological & metabolic effects of Epinephrine
increase heart rate
increase BP
increase dialation of resp passages

increase glycogen breakdown (mm & liver)
decrease glycogen synthesis (mm & liver)
increase gluconeogenesis (liver)
increase glycolysis (mm)
increase FA mobilization (fat cell)
increse glucagon secretion
decrease insulin secretion

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