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biochem-intro to carbs

Terms

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maltose
disaccaride
glucose a(1-4)glucose
Lactose
disaccaride
Galactose B(1-4) glucose
Sucrose
disaccaride
glucose(a1-2)Fructose
Trehaldose
disaccaride
glucose a(1-1)glucose
1)a vs B
2)D vs L
1) a = hydroxy group below
B = hydroxy group above

2) D = hydroxy group to R
L = hydroxy group to L
Difference b/n glucose & fructose
glucose is aldohexose
fructose is ketohexose
What happens in lactose deficiency.
You drink milk. Lactase isn’t present to break it down so it ferments(Bacteria). Gas(H2) and lactic acid is formed. Water rushes in to osmotically counter the acid. Fluid in gut rises. Intestinal walls bulge and peristalsis occurs w/ diarrhea which result in mal-absorbtion.
glut transport molecules
Transport of monosaccarides into the tissues results when insul stimulates the glucose transporter molicule to bind with the cell membrane and move glucose into the cell. (for mm cells & adiposites)
In mm cell & adiposites there is an abs requirement of glucose.
Glucose transporters present in
1)RBC
2)Brain
3)Liver
4)Muscle
5)Fat
1) GLUT1,3
2) GLUT1,3
3) GLUT2
4) GLUT4
5) GLUT4
Glycogen sx
a1-4 bonds (horizontal)
a1-6 bonds (vertical)
Which end is reducing end of carbohydrates?
Anomeric C
Significance of dietary fiber
non-digestible , can't break bonds
Describe digestion of starch
salivary & pancreatic a almylase break down starch into a dextrins (oligosaccarides w/ a1-6 branches) in mouth and stomach. Maltase, isomaltase, sucrase, & lactase in brush border of intestinal epithelial break it down further.
classification of lactose intolerance
1) congenital
2) temporary in premees
3)aquired isolated
4) secondary to intestinal diseases
5) secondary to insufficient contact time

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