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biochemistry exam 4


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Where is pyruvate generated
Where is pyruvate dehydrogenase located
mitochondrial matrix
Name cofactors for pyruvate dehydrogenase
NAD+, FAD+, TPP, lipoic acid, CoASH
Products pyruvate dehydrogenase
CO2, NADH, acetyl CoA
Structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase
E1, E2, E3 subunits, multienzyme complex
Net Reaction Citric Acid Cycle
Acetyl CoA + GDP + Pi + 3NAD+ + Q ---> 2CO2 + CoA + GTP + 3NADH + QH2
Citrate Synthase
condenses acetyl CoA with oxaloacetate, generates citrate, highly exergonic
intermediate - aconitate, product - isocitrate, reversible
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate, products - ketoglutarate, CO2, NADH, exergonic
Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase
oxidative decarboxylaiton of isocitrate
products - succinyl CoA, NADH, CO2, similar to pyruvate dehydrogenase, multienzyme complex, same cofactors, exergonic, irreversible step
Succinyl CoA Synthetase
Cleavage of high energy thioester bond drives formation of GTP, reversible reaction
Succinyl dehydrogenase
succinate is oxidized to fumarate, Q is reduced, double bond generated. Transfer of electrons first occurs through covalently bound FAD, then to Q, reversible
fumarate is hydrated to malate, reversible
Malate Dehydrogenase
oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate, NADH generated, reversible
Name three exergonic irreversible reactions
citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
HMG CoA reductase
rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, synthesis repressed by cytosolic cholesterol
Where does fatty acid synthesis occur?
Where does fatty acid oxidation occur
beta oxidation yield
one QH2, one NADH and one acetyl Co A
what is the difference between oxidation of unsaturated and saturated FA
unsaturated fatty acids yield less energy
enoyl Co A isomerase
converts cis to trans
what is the first step of FA synthesis
carboxylation of acetyl CoA, an ATP dependent reaction carried out by acetyl Co A carboxylase
what is the donor of 2 carbon acetyl units that are used to build a fatty acid
malonyl Co A
where can elongation occur
endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria
what do desaturases do
introduce double bonds into saturated fatty acids, only in ER
name essential fatty acids
linoleate and linolenate
where are ketone bodies generated

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