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ACNM Nutritional Biochemistry


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*Proteins manyfactured in the liver*
What is Glutathione made of?
Cysteine, Glycine, Glutamate
What 3 nutritional reccommendations would you make to a recovering alcoholic?
1.Well balanced diet, high in protein.
2. Small regular meals.
3. Consume alkaline foods to neutralise acidity
4. Decrease foods that may manifest an intollerance.
5. Increase foods with "liver" nutrients!
What is the function of a Helper T Cell?
What do they secrete?
Enhance production of antibodies by B cells.
Release Interleukin 2.
What is Hepatitis A?
Where is it found?
Faeco-oral route, or from infected person, contaminated water, shell fish, milk
What is a source of Giardiasis?
Protazoa: Giardia Lambia.
From contaminated water.
What is a source of tape worms?
Raw beef, pork & fish.
What is a source and effect of PROTEASE INHIBITOR consumption?
Sources: Beans, legumes, most nuts, some veg (peas, potato, eggplant)
Cause: Impared growth & food utilisation, pancreatic hypertrophy.
May suppress viruses and cancer.
What is Listeria Monocytogenes?
Where is it found?
Causes monocytosis.
From milk & milk products, especially cheeses.
What is the function of a suppressor T cell?
Decrease immune responses by producing cytokines which inhibit proliferation of t cells.
What 5 nutrient cofactors are requires for Monocyte activity?
B12, folate, Glutamine, beta-carotene, viamin E
Naturally occuring food toxins.
Amygdalin/Leatrile/B17 - from seed of almond, apple, apricot.
Dhurrin - sorghum species, wheat foods.
Linamarin - some varieties of line bean, cassava.
What are 5 naturally occurring toxins in food?
1. Caffeine
2. Cyanogenic glycosides
3. Glycoalkaloids
4. Nitrates
5. Nitrosamines
6. Pyrrolizadine alkaloids
7. Protease inhibitors
8. Saponins
9. Hemagglutinins
What is Clostridium botulinum?
Where is it found?
Severe food poisioning, can cause death.
High moisture cheese, canned, home cooked food, smoked/pickles meat or fish.
What 3 nutrients can be utilised for alcohol metabolism/Detoxification?
- VITAMIN B3 - help metabolise alcohol and acetylaldehyde (reducing the craving for alcohol).
- GLUAMINE - Precursor of GABA, relieves intoxification and cravings.
- PHENYLALANINE - inhibits enkephalinase, which maintains the brains endogenous supply of opiates, reducing cravings.
What are sources?
Naturally occuring food toxins.
Include Solanine & Chacacine.
From potato skin, eyes. Esp old potatos, those that have sprouted and left in sunlight.
What is a source of Sodium nitrate/nitrite, and a possible health affect?
used to make red meat stay red, not gray. bacon, ham, hotdogs, lunchmeat, smokd fish, corned beef.
The conversion of Phenylalanine to Tyrosine requires what cofactors?
Iron, Folate & Vitamin C.
What are CFU-GEMM cells?
Cells in the bone arrow which differentiate to yeild Red blood cells, granulocytes, monocytes and megakaryocytic cells.
What 3 molecules make up a carbohydrate?
What is a function of a PURINE?
Building block of DNA & RNA.
Component of
*cofactors (NAD,FAD,COA)
*neurotransmitters (cGMP)
*high-energy compounds in a cell (ATP,GTP,AMP)
*regulatory compounds (ATP,ADP,NAD+)
*signaling molecules (cAMP,G-PROTEINS)
What are the 5 stages of RBC genesis...
Basophilic erythroblast
Prochromatophil erythrobalst
What is the function of a macrophage?
Large phagocytic cells, they engulf foreign material and dead & dying cells.
Name 2 herbs that could be used to improve liver function:
Dandelion. Milk thistle. Catechins (green tea).
What does Platelet-derived growth factor do, and who secretes it?
It is secreted by macrophages and promotes healing and tissue remodelling.
What is a NITROSAMINE and where is it found?
Naturally occuring food toxins.
Nitrates combine with aine species. Effects people with chronic gastric or GIT problems.
Describe 2 toxic effects of alcohol on the Cardiovascular system:
1. Cardiomyopathy
2. Cerebral insuficiency (decrease blood flow to the brain)
3. Damage to heart
4. Hypertension (large amounts)
5. Macrocytic anaemia (large RBC)
6. Increased risk of stroke.
7. Increased risk of thrombosis (exc. red wine)
Name 3 Monosaccharides (simple sugars)
What is the effect of PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS and what are the food sources.
Liver disease and cancer.
Comfrey & borage.
Name 3 Disaccharides
Lactose (Galact&Gluc)
Maltose (Gluc&Gluc)
Sucrose (Gluc&Fruct)
Name 3 Polysaccharides
Which is absorbed slowest:
Glucose? Galactose? Fructose?
Eosinophil numbers will rise following the presence of:
Parasitic worms
Name 3 substances that may alleviate food poisioning:
Green tea (polyphenols)
Lipoic Acid for toxic mushrooms.
Cumin Seeds.
Onions (diphenylamine)
Eosinophils are cytotoxic. What does this mean?
They release the toxic contents of their granules to kill the invader.
GLA (Gamma Linoleic acid) has been show to reduce cravings for...
What are neutrophils?
A type of WBC. Most abundant.
They kill invaders and phagocytise their remains. The are involved in the destruction of antigens and detrimental bacteria.
Name 5 nutrients for alcohol detoxification:
B3, Glutamine, Phenylalanine, B1, B complex, Choline, A,C,E,
Mg, P, Selenium, Zn, Carnitine, Taurine, tryptophan, Glutathione, EPA
What are some co factors for lymphocytes?
B12. folate, alanine, glutamine, Beta-corotene, lycopene, glutathione, Dimethyl glycine, A,C,E
What are the sources & effects?
A group of proteins of plant origins that resemble (but are not) antibodies. Also called Lectins.
Beans, Lentils, Peas.
Cause impared growth & food utilisation. Agglutination of RBC in vitro.
Why would you prescribe Glutathione for alcohol recovery?
Relieves withdrawals
Why use Glutathione in liver disease?
Antoxidant. Prevent liver damage. Repair liver damage. Enhances general liver function.
What negative health conditions can caffeine cause?
Insomnia, Anxiety, tremors, palpitations, tachycardia, poor nutrient absorption.
Describe a toxic effect of alcohol on the Cell:
1. Increases intracellular fluid - alcohol dissolves into cells.
2. Increases cholesterol levels Choloesterol converted to less fluid state, it is ejected from the cells into the bloodstaem and to the liver.
Are we essential or Non-essential?
- Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine -
What is the lifespan of a RBC? Where are they broken down?
120days. In the liver and spleen.
*Proteins manyfactured in the liver*
What is Carnosine made of?
Histadine, B-Alanine
What physiological affects do Nitrates/Nitriles have?
Oxidise ferrous ion of hemoglobin to ferric form, reducing oxygen capacity.
Name 3 Essential Amino Acids:
Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine
What is Mycotoxin?
Where is it found?
Fungus. eg aflatoxin B1
from food stored in a moist place: beans, grains, peanuts...
Are we essential or Non-essential?
- Alanine, Aspartic acid, Carnitine, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutatione, Glycine, Ornithine, Proline, Serine, Taurine, Tyrosine -
Additives knowingly incorporated into food products by manufacturers.
Enhance appearance, taste, texture, storage life or to facilitate processing.
What are some potential health risks of Purines?
They produce uric acid:
2.Kidney disorders can lead to excess uric acid in the blood.
What are the types of T lymphocyte?
Cytotoxic, helper, Inflammatory.
Name 3 Non-Essential Amino Acids:
Alanine, Aspartic acid, Carnitine, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Glutatione, Glycine, Ornithine, Proline, Serine, Taurine, Tyrosine
What is thromboplastin, and what does it do?
Thromboplastin is secreted by macrophages. it is produced in response to bacterial endotoxin, and may activate the extrinsic coagulation mechanism & intravascular coagulation.
Are we essential or Non-essential?
- Arginine, Histadine -
Trick question! They're Semi-essential.
Essential or non essential?
Carnitine, Glutathione, Taurine..
What is Vibro Cholerae?
Where is it found?
Causes Asiatic cholera.
Spread by poor sanitation - contaminated water.
Are we essential or Non-essential?
Lysine, Methionine, Tryptophan...
What is "alpha-amylase" used for, and where is it produced?
Used to break the alpha 1-4 bonds in starch, dextrins and maltotriose.
Produced in the mouth and pancreas.
What is the function of a Cytotoxic T Cell?
What do they secrete?
Kill viruses and tumours.
Release PERFORIN, LYMPHOTOXIN,& CYTOKINES to attract macrophages.
Carbohydrates are divided into 4 main groups- what are they?
Monosaccharides (sugar).
Disaccharides (sugar).
Oligosaccharides (starch/fibre).
Polysaccharides (starch/fibre)..
What is Norwalk/Rota virus?
Where is it found?
Faeco-oral route, contaminated water, shellfish
What is the difference between a chemical additive for colour which states:
Natural source is natural eg. Carotenoids, anthocyanins.
Syntheic compounds either replicate a natural substance (eg betacarotene, curcumin), or have NO natural chemical counterpart tartarazine-yellow 102.
Describe a toxic effect of alcohol on the Immune system:
1. CANCER - liver, colon, oesophageal, Larynx, Breast, Mouth, Pharynx, pancreas and stomach!
Describe 5 toxic effects of alcohol on the Nervous System:
1. Increased agressiveness
2. Anxiety (due yo damage to benzodiazapine receptors)
3. ADD (pregnancy induced)
4. Damaged Benzodiazapine receptors
5. Depressed CNS behavoiur and co-ordination centres.
6. Necrosis of neuronal cells in cerebellum
7. Hippocampus damage
8. Delerium Tremens (DT's)
9. Depression
10. Drug dependance
11. Memory imparement
12. Miganes
13. Paralysis of limbs
14. Interference with sleep cycles
15. speech imparement (temporary)
*Proteins manyfactured in the liver*
What is Creatine made of?
Arginine, Glycine, Methionine
What are the 3 main Pyrimidines?
Thymine (B1 cofactor)
What substance do monocytes produce?
Interleukin 3 (IL-3)
What 4 substances do macrophages produce?
Platelet-derived growth factor.
Interleukin 1.
Tumour Necrosis factor.
*Proteins manyfactured in the liver*
What is Choline made of?
What is a SAPONIN?
What are the sources & effects?
Naturally occuring food toxins. Chemically divers steroid-like glucoside/glycoside terpenes.
Soy beans, sugar beets, peanuts, spinach, asparagus.
Cause haemolysis of RBC in vitro. Lower serum cholesterol.
What is a source of Saccharin, and a possible health affect?
Diet product, soft drink, chewing gum.
Bladder cancer.
uterine, ovarian, skin, blood vessel and organ cancer in rodents. Increase potency of other carcinogens.
Cysteine + Glycine + Glutamate =
Lysine + Methionine =
Arginine + Glycine + Methionine =
Glutathione, Carnitine, Creatine, Carnosine, Choline
Which amino acids contain SULPHUR ATOMS?
Cysteine (N/E), Methionine (E)
What is Trichinella spiralis?
Where is it found?
Pork and wild game.
Which amino acids contain HYDROXILIC GROUPS (OH)?
Serine (N/E), Threonine (E)
Which amino acids contain AROMATIC RINGS?
Phenylalanine (E), Tyrosine (N/E), Tryptophan (E)
What is a source of Amoebic Toxoplasmosis?
Protazoa: Toxoplasma Gundii.
Cat faeces, undercooked beef or lamb.
Which amino acids contain BASIC GROUPS?
Arginine (S/E), Lysine (E), Histadine (S/E)
Which is the most prominent circulation Amino Acid in the blood?
1st - Glutamine
next highest is Alanine
What is a LIVER function of Alanine?
Has a role in the transfer of nitrogen from periperal tissue to the liver
What enzymes break down:
& Sucrose-
and where are they produced?
Lactase, Maltase, Sucrase.
Produced in the small intestine.
Alanine is produced in muscle via the transamination of___
Is Alanine essential?
Is Cysteine essential?
Food poisioning - food processing techniques:

Avoid foods that are --
in swollen, rusted or badly dented cans.
Swollen frozen foods or foods containing ice crystals
Glutamate is a general collector of ______
Amino Nitrogen
What are the 4 steps to prevention of contamination of foods?
1. wash hands and surfaces often
2. Dont cross contaminate
3. Cook to proper temperatures
4. Chill: refrigerate promptly
Glycine and serine are produced from one another in a reversible reaction requiring ___
3-phosphoglycerate can be converted into which non-essential amino acid?
Tryosine can be produced from which other amino acid?
What is E.Coli (enteropathic strain)?
Where is it found?
Causes infantile diarrhoea.
Found in milk and poor hygiene
Phenylalanine monoxygenase is responsible for the conversion of Phenylalanine to __
Deficiency of phenylalanine monoxygenase results in waht health condition:
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Recent research suggests that Fatty acids have *what* effect on liver regeneration?
Fatty acids facilitate hepatic cell division, by being utilised as a form of cellular energy. = good
*Proteins manyfactured in the liver*
What is Carnitine made of?
Lysine, Methionine
Describe a toxic effect of alcohol on the Sexual system:
1. Inferility (M&F)
2. Impotence (M)
3. Gynecomastia (M)
4. Inability of liver to process oestrogens
5. Impaired sexual performance
7. Testicular atrophy
Purines break down in the gut to form___
Uric Acid
Describe 2 toxic effects of alcohol on the Metabolism:
1. reactive hypoglycaemia
2. Insulin resistance
3. Liver malfunction - cirrhosis, fatty liver, choline deficiency.
4. Increased LDL's & triglycerides
5. Increased Obesity
Naturally occuring food toxins. COmpound that counteracts proteolytic enzymes.
What is Vibro parahaemolyticus?
Where is it found?
Causes gastroenteritis.
Found in raw fish 7 shell fish washed in contaminated water.
Which Purines are building blocks for RNA and DNA?
Adenine (AMP) & Guanine (GMP)
What are some adverse affects of Cyanogenic Glycosides?
Can be broken into Hydrogen Cyanide, a potent respiratory inhibitor.
Traditional cooking methods usually neutralise.
Cyanide -->other substances--> Goitre
Where is the major site of purine synthesis?
The Liver
Describe a toxic effect of alcohol on the Skin:
1. Psoriasis exacerbated
2. Increases wrinkles due to dehydration and lack of essential fats.
Describe a toxic effect of alcohol on the Musculoskeletal system:
1. Gout
2. Gynecomastia (man boobs!)
3. Leukoplakia (mouth lesions)
4. Osteoporosis
What is a sounce and 3 effects of caffeine.
Coffee, tea, cola, chocolate, cocoa.
Diuretic, cardiac stimulant, gastric acid stimulant, smooth muscle relaxant, animal teratogen.
Radiation chemotherapy can reduce the numbers of neutrophils, what is a negative outcome of this?
Increase in opportunistic infection. this can be life threatening.
Nmae a function of Pyrimidines:
1. Building blocks of RNA & DNA
What are some potential health benefits of the Pyrimidine Pathway?
1. energy production (coenzyme)
2.Synthesiswith NADPH
3. Membrane & nerve conduction
What is Shigella?
Where is it found?
Causes Dysentry.
Spread by poor sanitation (primarily vegetables)
What is Rickettsia?
Where is it found?
Not a mould or fungi. Intracellular pathogen.
cause Q fever & ornithosis - milk, poultry and humans
What is EPO & what does it do?
EPO is Erythropietin, a cytokine produced in the kidneys which stimulates the production of Red Blood Cells in the bone marrow.
What is a cytokine?
any of a class of immunoregulatory proteins (as interleukin, tumor necrosis factor, and interferon) that are secreted by cells especially of the immune system
What are 5 detoxification/Clearance pathways involved in elimination of contaminants?
1. Gut Barrier (GALT)- barrier & immune function
2. Phase I detox - P450 enzymes- oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis
3.Phase II detox- contaminats made water soluable.
4. Immune system- NK cells and neutrophils.
5. Kidney - glomerular filtration.
Where do red blood cells mature?
In the bone marrow.
Haemoglobin contributes to around ___% of the weight of a erythrocyte?
Alcohol oxidises to_____, which inhibits breakdown of ___, these react with neurotransmitters in the brain to form harmful, addictive____
Toxic amines.
Isoquinoline alkaloids.
What is a source of Amoebic Dysentry?
Protazoa from fish and shellfish.
Do RBC's have a nucleus?
How is the heme portion of Haemoglobin recycled?
The Iron of the heme is reclaimed for recuse. The remainder of the unit is degraded into bile pigments and excreted by the liver as bile.
Do Leukocytes have a nucleus?
What substance to Macrophages produce? And what does it do?
Platelet-derived growth factor. It promotes healing and tissue remodeling.
What nutrients could you supplement for enhanced clearance of contaminants and WHY?
FIBRE- Binds & excretes
PROBIOTICS - aid good gut funct
B VITAMINS - liver detox
VITAMIN C - immune sys, liver detox, antiox
VITAMIN E - antiox, enhance cell membrane
GLUTATHIONE - Antiox, liver detox
ZINC - Immune, liver detox
TAURINE, GLYCINE, CYSTEINE -Liver detox pathways
LIPOIC ACID- Anti ov, liver detox
BIOFLAVINOIDS - Immune, antiox
VITAMIN A - Antiox, protects gut barrier
Which cell produces IL-3 (Interleukin 3)?
Monocytes differentiate into various types of macrophages, these include:
Tissue macrophages, Kapffer cells and osteoclasts.
General cases of fish poisioning.
Name 2 substances that can reduce PGE2 enzymes:
ENZYMES: Bromelain- inhibits production of PGE2.
LIPIDS: Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) & Dihomo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid (DGLA) -inhibits production of PGE2.
Name an MINERAL interfered with by alcohol
Decreases: Ca, Mg, P, Se, Zn
Nutrophils generate super oxide free radicals during what process?
What function of Monocytes does Glutamine and Vitamin E act as a cofactor to?
The ability to function as phagocytes
Recent research suggests that glucose has *what* effect on liver regeneration?
Glucose increases the toxicity of centrilobular hepatotoxins, by inhibiting cell division and repair, allowing increased damage.=bad
The enzyme Delta-6-destaurase is inhibited by what?
When a Macrophage collects antigentic material, it presents it to ___
What are CFC-GM?
The precursors of monocytes and granulocytes.
Adenine (AMP), guanine (GMP) and Hypoxanthine are all from what group?
Name 3 Nutrients for Macrophage function:
B12, Folate, Glutamine, Acetyl-LlCarnitine, Glucans, CoQ10, Vit B5, Vit D.
What type of cell are Lymphocytes and monocytes?
Why would you prescribe Mg & Glutathione for alcohol recovery?
Mg: Phase 1 liver detox
Glutathione: Liver Detopx
Who are the first WBC's to reach wounds?
What does Delta-6-Saturase DO?
Allows the conversion of LINOLEIC ACID to GAMMA LINOLEIC ACID (GLA)
Name an NEUROTRANSMITTER interfered with by alcohol
Acetylcholine, GABA receptors, Nitric Oxide production, Vasopressin.
Which WBC is a principle component of PUS?
Name 3 Nutrients for Neutrophil function:
B12, Folate, Glutamine, acetyl-L-carnitine, Taurine, Vitamin A, B6, C, E
What affect will cotricosteroid therapy have on Eosinophils?
It will reduce their numbers severely.
What is a NITRATE and where is it found?
Naturally occuring food toxins, found in plant foods.
Celery, lettuce, bananas, cabbage, potato, strawberries & spinach.
NITRILES are more hazardous.
What chemicals do basophils release?
What affects do the chemicals released by Basophils have on the body?
Increase blod flow to the area. Inflammatory responses.
What cell produces Histamine, Seretonin, Prostoglandins & Leukotrienes?
Which antibody binds to Basophils in the blood?
What are some cofactors of basophils?
Vitamin B12, Folate, Iron, Heparin, Quercetin
What enzyme allows the conversion of LINOLEIC ACID to GAMMA LINOLEIC ACID (GLA)?
What does a B Lymphocyte do?
Make antibodies
Alcoholics have difficulty breaking down Acetaldehyde to acetate. this results in...
Raised brain concentration of acetaldehyde!
which Lymphocyte makes antibodies?
B Lymphocyte
What is the function of an Inflammatory T Cell?
Recruit macrophages and neutrophils to the site of infection
Name an VITAMIN interfered with by alcohol
A, B(1,2,6,9,12), C, D, E, K
Biotin, choline, initisol, PABA.
Alcohol addicition is thought to be associated with morphine like substances that arise from _____ and _____ _____ within the brain

Alcohol addicition is thought to be associated with morphine like substances that arise from ACETALHYDE and DOPAMINE PRODUCTION within the brain.
What is the cofactor for Cystathionine synthetase & Cystathionine Lysase?
Where are Lymphocytes formed and where do they mature?
Formed in the bone marrow, mature in the thymus.
Which cells are responsible for specific resistance to disease (cellular immunity)?
T & B Lymphocytes.
___% of circulating lymphocytes are T cells
where are B lymphocytes formed and where do they mature?
In the bone marrow.
B Lymphocytes respond to antigenic stimuli by...
Producing anti-bodies
Where are Mast cells primarily found?
Digestive system, respiratory system, blood vessels.
Basophils in the connective tissue are known as
Mast Cells
Additives that appear in food products indirectly, from contamination of ingredients or during manufacturing.
Mast Cells in the blood stream are called
Mast cells release __.
Heparin. This mediates the inflamatory response causing the release of histamine & serotonin.
PGE1 is produced from the metabolism of WHAT?
PGE1 is produced from the metabolism of OMEGA 6 fatty acids.
It's a Mood elevator! :)
Cofactors to Mast cells include:
B12, folate. Tyramine, Quercetin, Zinc.
Which 2 nutrients are COFACTORS in the bone marrow for the development of stem cells division?
b12 & folate
What do B12 and folate assist in the function of in the bone marrow?
They are cofactors for development of stem cell division.
What is a source of Aspartame, and a possible health affect?
Diet food & drink, equal, nutrasweet.
Dizziness, hallucinations, headache.
What nutrient stabilises the membrane of mast cells?
What is a PURINE?
Purines are the nitrogenous bases Adenine (AMP), guanine (GMP) and Hypoxanthine.
What nutrient inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells?
What are Interferons?
Lymphokines produced endogenously by macrophages from cells infected with viruses.
Chemically, interferons are:
What are functions of interferons?
Destroy some types of detrimental bacteria, block the reproduction of some types of viruses and cancer.
What are 3 cofactors of interferons?
Glucose, Amino Acids, Vitamin C.
What affect does Vitamin C have on Interferons?
Increases their production.
Eicosanoid Metabolism includes:
What affect does excessive Ethanol consumption have on cell membranes?
Causes cell membrane rigidity: interferes with permeability and impares cell function.
What are eicosanoids?
Potent regulators of cellular function, produced by almost every cell in the body. Act mainly as local hormones.
What processes do eicosanoids participate in?
1. Inflammation -Major function-
2. Regulate smooth muscle contraction.
3. Increase water and sodium excretion.
4. Modulators
Thromboxane A2 is a bi-product of the COX pathway of the eicosanoid pathway. Which cells produce Thromboxane A2?
Why would you prescribe Choline, A,C,E or Selenium for alcohol recovery?
Antioxidant actions.
What are some potential health benefits of Purines?
They produce uric acid:
1.Enhances some aspects of mental function (stimulate CNS)
2.May help prevent lung cancer in smokers
3. Deactivates free radicals
What are 2 common types of lymphocyte?
B lymphocytes.
T lymphocytes:
*Inflammatory T cells.
*Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes.
*Helper T Cells.
Name an ENZYME interfered with by alcohol
Thromboxane A2 is a bi-product of the COX pathway of the eicosanoid pathway. What is a function of Thromboxane A2?
Causes thrombosis, stimulates platelet aggregation, causes vasoconstrction and bronchoconstriction, promotes angiogenesis.
Prostacyclin PGI2 is a bi-product of the COX pathway of the eicosanoid pathway. Which cells produce Prostacyclin PGI2?
Vascular endothelial cells
What is Salmonella?
Where is it found?
Salmonella Typhi Causes typhoid fever. Spread by water and direct contact.
Other Salomonella cause gastroenteritis. Found in animal food products.
Prostacyclin PGI2 is a bi-product of the COX pathway of the eicosanoid pathway. What is a function of Prostacyclin PGI2?
Causes thrombolysis, inhibits platelet aggregation, causes vasodilaton, reduces angiogenesis.
Prostoglandin E2F2D2 is a bi-product of the COX pathway of the eicosanoid pathway. What is a function of Prostoglandin E2F2D2?
Increases vasodilation and cAMP, decreases platelet aggregation, decreases lymphocyte migration, decreases interleukin 1&2, increases vasoconstriction, increases bronchoconstriction and smooth muscle contraction.
The COX pathway of the Eicosanoid pathway results in 3 biproducts, these are:
Thromboxane A2
Prostacyclin PGI2
Prostoglandin E2F2D2
The Lipoxygenase pathway of the Eicosanoid pathway results in 2 biproducts, these are:
5 & 12 HETE
Leukotrienes (LTC4 & LTD4)
5&12 HETE are a bi-product of the Lipoxygenase pathway of the eicosanoid pathway. What is a function of 5&12 HETE?
Promotes metastasis, suppresses apoptosis, increases adhesive factors, stimulates proteolytic enzymes, stimulates vasodilation.
Leukotrienes (LTC4 & LTD4) are a bi-product of the Lipoxygenase pathway of the eicosanoid pathway. What is a function of Leukotrienes (LCD4 & LTD4)?
Increase inflammation, vascular permeability, T cell proliferation, leukocyte aggregation, interleukins 1&2, bronchconstriction.
Name 3 arachadonic acid inhibitors:
Vitamin E, PGE 1, PGE 3, DHA, EPA
Prostoglandins: PGE series 1,2 & 3:
which are beneficial, which are detrimental?
PGE 1&3 are beneficial.
PGE2 is detrimental (I2 is beneficial, E2 is toxic).
note: PGI2 ca be obtained from other prostoglandins.
Excessive production of Thromboxane A2 plays a significant role in this disease state..
Abnormal blood clotting.
What substances inhibit thromboxane A2 (TXA2)?
Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)
Ginger (gingerol)
Green tea (Ninhydrin)
Turmeric (curcumin)
Fish oils (EPA)
Garlic, Onion, rhubarb
Thromboxane A2, Prostacyclin PGI2, Prostoglandin E2F2D2 are biproducts of what pathway?
They are biproducts of the COX pathway branch of the Eicosanoid pathway.
5 &12 HETE and Leukotrienes LTC2 & LTD2 are biproducts of what pathway?
They are biproducts of the Lipoxygenase branch of the Eicosanoid pathway.
Series 4 Leukotrienes (LT4) are implicated in the following disease states..
Abnormal blood clotting.
Inflammation responses.
What are the 5 cofactors of red blood cells?
Iron, b1, b6, b12, folate.
Leukotriene inhibitors include:
Glutathione, Boswellia, DGLA, Quercetin, St Mary's thistle.
What is a source of interleukin (IL)
1? 2? 3? 4? 5&6?
1: Activated macrophages & other APC's
2,3,4,5,6: Activated T cells
Where do these cytokines get produced:
INF - Gamma?
TNF - Alpha?
INF-Gamma: activated T cells
TNF-Alpha: Activated macrophages
What do the following interleukins (IL) stimulate the proliferation of?
1? 2? 3? 4? 5&6?
1 - Antigen specific T cell, leading to secretion of IL2.
2 -T cells & other cytokines
3 - Haemopoietic stem cells
4 - B cells, Ig isotype switching.
5&6 - B cells into placsma cells.
What is acute inflammation?
What are the mediators?
The initial response to injury to tissues.
What is an immune response?
When cells of the immune system are activated in response to antigens liberated during either Acute or chronic stages of inflammation.
can be detrimental if leads to chronic inflammation without resolution of the cause.
What does Chronic inflammation involve the release of?
interleukins 1,2,3,
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating factor (GM-CSF),
Tumour necrosis factor alpha,
Interferons and
Platelet-derived growth factor.
How does inflammation initially affect the cardiovascular system?
Small blood vessels in the area initially contract and then dilate.
This explains heat and redness.
How does inflammation initially affect the Musculoskeletal System?
Increased permeability of the affected tissues, causing oedema.
How does inflammation initially affect the Nervous system?
Pain occurs at the site due to the release of Bradykinin and Serotonin.
What is the function of a leukocyte?
To protect the body from infection
How does inflammation initially affect the immune system?
IgG enters the tissues, stimulates phagocytes. Eosinophil act to control allergies.
Neutrophils release lysozyme to destroy bacteria.
Mast cells burst and release histamione and seretonin.
What is fatty liver?
The build up of fat in the liver cels. May lead to inflammation, causing cirrhosis.
What Enzymes are released during inflammation?
Collagenase (damages collagen).
Elastase (damages elastin)
What hormones suppress inflammation?
What are Bradykinin & seretonin responsible for in inflammation?
Pain sensations
What nutrient is a cofactor for all 3 enzymes:
Cycloxygenase, Elongase, Lipoxygenase?
Name 3 anti-inflammatory foods and their active constituent:
GARLIC - allicin
GINGER - Gingerol, diarlhepatanoids
PINEAPPLE - Bromelain
ONIONS - Quercetin
TURMERIC - Curcurmin
What is a Food Toxin?
Naturally occuring toxin (eg nitrates, aflatoxin)
Food mediated toxins (eg Salmonella)
Toxins associated with fish, mushrooms or shellfish.
What food handling practices can increasse the risk of food poisioning? Name 3:
Leaving food out of refrigerator.
Not consuming straight away.
Food left exposed.
Handling cooked & uncooked meat at the same time.
Using the same board for uncooked meat and veg.
Not washing utensils properly.
Using cutting boards of porus material.
Consuming leftovers.
Freezing and rethawing.
What are the possible symptoms of food poisioning?
Nausea. Vomiting. Diarhoea. Fever. Loss of appetite. Stomach pains. Gastroenteritis. Convulsions.
Name 2 food processing techniques designed to keep food free of pathogens:
Heating (eg pasturisation)
What are some symptoms of Glycoalkaloid toxicity?
Above 20mg/100g is unsafe.
G/I & neurological symptoms.
Paralysis over a long time.
Name 4 micro-organisms implicated in food poisioning:
Mould, fungi, Algae
Helminths (eggs and larvae)
What is Staphlococcus Aureus?
Where is it found?
Causes food poisioning, 1-6hr incubation.
From human hands (from thoat & nasal passages), cold meats and dairy.
What is Bacillus cereus?
Where is it found?
Bacteria. Spores survive boiling and frying.
Type a - no vomiting - meat products, veg, soups, sauces...
Type B - vomiting - Rice
What is a source of MSG and a possible health affect?
Soups, salad dressing, chips, chinese food.
Headaches, migranes, nausea, Asthma, burning neck, increased heart rate, convulsions.
What inhibits Nitrosamine?
Ascorbic acid/Vitamin C
Describe 3 toxic effects of alcohol on the Digestive system:
1. Cholestasis (impared delivery of bile to small intestine)
2. damage to duodenum
3. Irritation and inflammaton of gastric mucosa.
4. gastritis/Alcohol induced gastric lesions
5. Heartburn (relaxes oesophageal sphincter and reduces peristaltic force)
6. Irritated and inflamed intestines
7. Pancreatitis
8. Peptic and gastric ulcers
Why would you prescribe Tryptopan for alcohol recovery?
Mood elevation
Naturopathic advice for detoxification:
1. Ensure healthy gut and liver function
2. Rest and recuperate
3. Boost and maintain immune system
4. Antioxidants
5. Good hygiene & food handling.
6. Avoid toxic foods
What is a source of ERYTHROSINE, and a possible health affect?
Red colouring - cordial, soft drink, liquers, lollies, jams.
Hyperactivity, reduced concentration, nerve toxin.
Name 3 general food additives and an example
ACIDITY REGULATOR - metatartic acid (353)
ANTI-CAKING AGENTS - Silicon dioxide (551)
ANTI-FOAMING AGENTS - Dimethylpolysiloxane (900)
ANTIOXIDANTS - Ascorbic acid (300)
ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS - Aspartame (951), Saccharin (954)
BLEACHING AGENTS - Chlorine dioxide (926)
BULKING AGENTS - Dextrins (1400)
COLOURS - tartarazine (102)
EMULSIFIERS - Lecithin (322)
FLAVOURS - natural, nature identical, artificial, smoke.
FLOUR TREATMENT AGENTS - aluminium chloride (510)
GLAZING AGENTS - beeswax (901)
HUMECTANTS - Sorbitol (420)
MINERAL SALTS - bicarbonate, calcium salts.
PRESERVATIVES - Benzoic acid (210), sulphur dioxide (220)
PROPELLANTS - Carbon dioxide (290)
RAISING AGENTS - baking powder
VEGETABLE GUMS - Guar, dextrin
Name 2 additives that can cause allergic reaction:
Artificial colourings, Yellow 5, Artificial flavouring, Aspartame, Beta-carrotene, caffeine, Casein, HVP, Lactose, Gluten, Monosodium Glutamate (MSG), Sodium bisulfite, sulfites, sulfur dioxide, olestra, saccharin, sodium nitrate, stevia.
What is a source of Olestra, and a possible health affect?
Inabsorbable fat substitute. Chps & crackers.
Diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, flatulence, increased appetite, loss of fat soluable vitamins.
Who is most at risk form additives?
Children (esp ADD children)
Sensitive individuals
Liver disease or problems with detoxification.
Immune suppressed
Prone to allergies
Mentally ill.

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