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Bio 2 Test 2 Chapter 28 Protist


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single celled organism
(An informal term applied to any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus. Most protists are unicellular, though some are colonial or multicellular. )
Evolution of Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes
Dr. Lynn Margulis comes up with the theory of Endosymbiosis
"Theory of Endosymbiosis"
A process in eukaryotic evolution in which a heterotrophic eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell, which survived in a symbiotic relationship inside the heterotrophic cell. And diversity produced by second endosymbiosis
Clade Diplomonadida
(Diplomonads= two monoploid)
-*parasitic, multiflagellated
-Ex.***Giardia intestinalis
(intestine's parasites)
-modified mitochondria
(No DNA, No E.T.S.,No enzyme)
- two haploid nuclei
Clade Parabasala
Ex. *Trichomonas Vaginalis
-sex transmitted
-undulating membrane
(a common inhabitat of the human vagina)
*Clade Euglenozoa
1) Euglenids
*genus Euglena
**Trypnosoma bruceii rhodesiense: cause ***Afr. sleeping sickness or Trypanosomiasis Carrier is Testse fly genus *Glossina
-clade Euglenozoa
-flagellum(animals part), chloroplast, *contractile vacuole, eye spot, ***Paramylon or Paramylum
_It's mixotrophic**
Contractile Vacuole
-In Euglena
-expell excess water
because it lives in hypotonic environment
" Osmoregulation"=water balance
In Euglena;
-Autotropic part is Chloroplasts(plants)
-Heterotropic part is absorbing food in the environment
Many species of the euglenid Euglena are autotrophic, but when sunlight is unavailable, they can become heterotrophic, absorbing organic nutrients from their environment
Eye spot in Euglena
-functions as a light shield
-possibly phototactic(light attract)
Paramylon or Paramylum in Euglena
-storage Carbohydrate peculiar to Euglenids
(sugar 's form Euglena photosynthesis)
Trypanosoma bruceii rhodesiense
-Cause Afr sleeping sickness
-Carrier is Testse fly genus Glossina
-morphologically identical to Trypanosoma bruceii gambiense
-Clade Euglenozoa
Mass of DNA in mitochondia
Clade Alveolata
- "Alveoli"
membrane–bounded sacs (alveoli) just under the plasma membrane involve in balance(support) and transprot substance in/ out
-have three groups
(Ex. Ceratium hirudinella-cause red tide)
(Ex.* Plasmodium that cause Malaria)
(Cilia is main structure)
(group 1 of clade Alveolata)
Ex. Ceratium hirundinella (creates red tide tampa)
-Can exist as heterotroph and autotroph
-cellulose plated outside of the shell
- food stored as starch
Apicomplaxa or Sporozoan
(group 2 of clade Alveolata)
-cause **Malaria
-a group of parasite***
(Cinchora- a tree that produce " Quinine" prolactic against Malaria)
300 millions new Malaria case every years
two types of Plasmodium
* cause Malaria
** Clade Alveolata
(group Apicomplexa)
1) Plasmodium falciparum
found in liver, and
RBC(red blood cell)
2) Plasmodium Vivax

-Carrier*** Female mosquitoes called
" Anopheles"
Cycle of Plasmodium
1)After Mosquito bite, the sporozoites get into human liver cells
2)Sporozoites(n) become "Merozoits(n)" infect in liver and RBC
3)Merozoits rupturing RBC coz chills and fever associated with Malaria are form
4) some Merozoits form gametocytes
5) Gametes form inside another Mosquito
6) fertilization in mosquito's degestive tract
to become zygote(2n)
7) Oocyst form in mosuito's gut and release Sporozoits again
Infectous cells in Female mosquito (Anopheles)
"Sexual form of parasites"
-Merozoits(n) formed gametocyte after burst into RBC cause chills and fever(Malaria)
at the tip of this organism have organelles that penetrates RBC (red blood cell)
(group 3 of clade Alveolata)
-Main structure is *cilia
(short, numerous, useful for locomotion movement, feeding)
-Ex. Paramecium multimicronucleate
-Have two type of nuclei
-* ciliates are some of the most complex of all cells
-Remember all structure of Paramecium
Macronuclei (type of nuclei in Ciliates)
-" Vegetative nucleus"
-control the everyday function of the cell
-necessary for asexual reproduction
(*** growth, Maintenance, Aseuxal reproduction*)
Micronuclei (type of nuclei in Ciliates)
-" reproductive nucleus"
in function by Conjugation***
-give rise to macronuclei
(sexual reproduction)
a sexual process which produce genetic variation
-occur in 1)Bacteria 2) Sprirogyra- need bridge
3)paramecium -changing micronuceli between two paramecium, then micronuclei become macronuclei
Asexual Reproduction in Paramecium
-called "Transverse fission"
-Paramecium gets skinny in the middle then split in two paramecium
Structures of Paramecium
(type> Ciliates)
(Clade> Alveolata)
1)contactile vacuole- get rid of excess water
2)food vacuole-hook up with Lysosome(have enzyme to digest food)
-food is engulfed into paramecium by **Phagocytosis
-thousand of cilia
-Oral groove
is near by cytostome(cell mouth)
-Cytoproct(undigested food inject out)
-Trichocysts(rod-like, use for defense Anchor)
Clade Stramenopila
containing Amylose&Amylopectin
-consist of four groups
3)Chrysophyta(Golden Algae)
4)Phaeophyta(Brown Algae)
(Clade Stramenopila gr.1)
-Ex.Saprolegnia(Water Mold)
-see in injured fish
-Ex.Phytophora infestans
(Potato Famine- 19C)
- Most are "plant pathogos"
(attack plant)
-do have cell wall but they contain "Cellulose"
diff. than fungi(cell wall: Chitin)
(Clade Stramenopila gr.2)
-Most are Autotropic
Ex.*Diatoms->Siliceous or SiO2 use foer toothpaste, pool filter, Eco.value
-reproduce asexually by mitosis
-store their food reserves in the form of a glucose polymer called "laminarin"**
-Some store food as oil
-see in both fresh and salt water
Chrysophyta(Golden Algae)
(Clade Stramenopila gr.3)
Note:Chryso=golden, Phyta=plant
-Contain photosyn.pigments
1) Xanthophyll
2)Yellow & brown Carotenoids
-Most are biflagellated
-Most unicellular
-All can photosyn. Some are Mixotrophic
Phaeophyta(Brown Algae)
(Clade Stramenopila gr.4)
Ex. Ectocarpus, Sargussum,Laminaria
Note: important parts of Laminaria 1)Stipe(stem-like)
->photosyn. take place at blade
Clade Cercozoan
" Amoebas"
-Characterized by "Pseudopodia"(false feet)that use fore locomotion, engulf food by phagocytosis
-has two types
(Clade Cercozoan,1)
-snail like shell or test
-**Calcareous shell or test(CaCo3)Ex. Genus* Globigerina
"ooze"-important oceanic sediments
-Most are *Multilocular(many chambers)
-Some are Unilocular(one chamber)
-Palentheologist found some oils from their fossils
(Clade Cercozoan,2)
-Pseudopods(radiating form a central body)as axopodia->threadlike Pseudopods
-Shells are SiO2
Clade Amoebozoans
-lobe–shaped pseudopodia
rather than threadlike
-have three types 1.Gymnamoebas
3.Slime molds
(Clade Amoebozoa gr.1)
Note: Gymno=no seed
Ex. Amoeba proteus
(has food vacuole
,lysosome,Lobopodia-spead to the side)
-no flagellated
-No meiosis, no sexual reproduction
(Clade Amoebozoa gr.2)
-***parasites that infect all classes of vertebrates
-Ex. Genus**histolytica causes "Amebic Dysentery'Encyst" in intestines
-spread via contaminated drinking water
Slime molds
(Clade Amoebozoa gr.3)
Note:meaning “fungus animals”
Ex.1)Plasmodial Slime mold
:-genus *Physarum
2)Cellular Slime molds

-look like fungi
-Convergent Evol. with fungi
Convergent Evolution with Fungi
Two organisms involving in the similar habitat resembles each other in appearance and life cycle
Ex. Slime mold VS.Fungi
(Clade Amoebozoa)
Plasmodial slime mold

(ex. of Slime mold, Clade Amoebozoa)
-refer as myxogastrida
-Plasmodium is active feeding stage
-Multinucleated(many nuclei)=Coenocytic not partition by cell membrane
-**"Fruiting body" is function in Sexual reproduction
-Cease Malaria***
cellular slime mold

(ex. of Slime mold, Clade Amoebozoa)
-refer as Dictyostelida
-Feeding stage consists of individual solitary haploid cells
-**Fruiting body is function in Asexual Reproduction
Clade Rhodophytes(Red Algae)
Ex. Genus** Porphyra
:Nori(Sushisee weed), no flagellated stage, Chlorophyll A,D, Phycobilins(red pigment):Phycoerythrin**
Ex. Genus Bactrachospermum
(freash water algae-green in color)

-Found in fresh, marine, moist terrestrial, Widespread
-**Can Photosynthesis
-Reproduce sexually
-Cell walls contain
*** " Carageenan"(use in ham, jelly beans)
-For commercial values
:-production of Agar, Media in microbiology
or " Irish Moss"***
Clade Chlorophyta
-Plant type (Chloroplasts)
-found in fresh water, marine terrestrial
Ex. Genus*
1)Ulva(sea lettuce)
2)***Chara Close to green plants " Charaphyceans"
"colonial" type
a unicellular type with flagella

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