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Theories of Learning - Behaviorism


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What is the Drive Reduction Theory?
Behavior occurs in response to "drives" such as hunger, thirst, sexual interest, feeling cold, etc.
What is a neutral impulse?
Stimulus trace
What is habitat strength, SHR?
(Learning) for giving a particular response to a stimulus gets stronger with repeated associations
What is reaction potential (SER) ?
A function of Drive and Habit Strength
What is Crespi Effect?
Performance changes rapidly following a change in reinforcement size
What is Incentive Motivation (K)?
Learning happens at a fixed pace but people perform differently based variation in the size of the incentive (not a simple linear relationship between reinforcement and learning)
What is Stimulus Intensity Dynamism (V)?
The greater the intensity of the external stimulus, the greater the probability that a learned response will be elicited.
What is Fractional Antedating Goal Response (rG)?
The conditioned response to stimuli, experienced prior to the secondary reinforcer
1. The rG is some fraction of goal response (RG)
2. The rG (firing of kinesthetic receptors) produces stimulation (proprioceptive stimuli, sG)
What is Fractional Antedating Goal Response (rG– sG)?
Adds mental component of the chaining process
What is The Notion of Habit Family Hierarchy?
In any learning situation, any number of responses are possible, and the one that is most likely is the one that brings about reinforcement most rapidly and with the least amount of effort
How did Thorndike work with Animals?
Phylogenetic continuity of species
Non-anthropometric explanations
Experimental (lab) research
What did Thorndike focus on?
Focus on Stimulus-Response (S-R) relationships
Focus on trial-and-error learning
Focus on incrementalism of learning
What is the Law of readiness?
When one is ready to perform an act, to do so is satisfying
When one is ready to perform an act, to not do so is annoying
When one is not ready to perform an act and is forced to do so, it is annoying.
What is the law of effect?
The connection between a stimulus and response is strengthened or weakened as a result of the consequences (effects) of the response.
Confirming reactions: Strengthen responses that produced satisfying states
What did Thorndike think about learning?
Learning happens by Trial and Error
Learning is Incremental and Mechanical
What is the law of exercise?
Law of use: Connections between a situation and a response are strengthened when they are used (practice)
Law of Disuse: Connections between situations and responses are weakened when practice is discontinues or if the neural bond is not used.
Why do different people learn different things from the same situation?
Set/Attitude: Individual differences in initial states and dispositions
Accounts for learning history
Why do people learn only certain things from situations?
Prepotency of elements
To become the study of selective attention
How do people generalize from things they’ve learned?
Response by Analogy (transfers of learning to analogous situations)
Identical elements theory of transfer
Associative Shifting
Producing a particular response (associated with a stimulus) to different stimuli elements
Similar to classical conditioning
What is the revised Law of Effect?
Revised: Satisfying states of affairs strengthen responses, but punishers (Annoyers) Do Not Weaken Bonds (i.e., punishment doesn’t work)
What happened to the law of exercise?
It was discarded
What is Belongingness?
Some connections learned more readily beyond mere contiguity
The Principle of Polarity – Direction of learned responses
What is the Spread of Effect?
Responses proximal to reinforced response also increase
What is respondent behavior?
Behavior elicited by a known stimulus that preceded it (e.g., reflexes / unconditional responses)
Type S (Stimulus) Conditioning: Classical Conditioning
What is Operant Behavior?
Behavior simply emitted by organism (not based on any known stimulus), and controlled by its consequences (e.g., most everyday activities)
Type R (Respondent) Conditioning: Operant conditioning
What is a reinforcing stimuls?
Any event that increases the rate with which an operant response occurs (i.e., increases probability of response)
What is shaping?
Accelerates lever pressing (rather than “learn or die”) by reinforcing successive approximations
What is extinction?
If reinforcer is removed (response no longer produces reinforcer), then behavior returns to operant level (base rate without reinforcement)
What is spontaneous recovery?
Reappearance of extinguished operant response without reinforcer
What is Discriminative Operant?
An operant response given to one set of circumstances but not to another
What is SD (discriminative stimulus)?
Signals reinforcer availability
What does S mean?
(signals no reinforcer)
What does SDR mean?
(operant response)
What does SR mean?
(reinforcing stimulus)
What is a Secondary Reinforcement?
A stimulus paired with a primary reinforcer becomes reinforcing
What is a Generalized Reinforcer?
A secondary reinforcer paired with many primary reinforcers
What is Chaining?
A “chain” of successive backward secondary reinforcers
What is Superstitious Behavior?
Responding to a noncontingent reinforcer
What is a Positive stimuli?
Stimuli Added Contingent upon Response
What is a Negative stimuli?
Stimulus Removed Contingent upon Response
What do reinforcers do?
Reinforcers increases operant rate
What does punishment do?
Punishment decreases operant rate
What is FI?
Fixed Interval Reinforcement
What is FR?
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement
What is VIn?
Variable Interval Reinforcement
What is VRn?
Variable Ratio Reinforcement
What is concurrent?
Two different schedules of reinforcement at the same time
What is concurrent chain?
Organism’s initial behavior determines subsequent schedule of reinforcement
What is mand?
Requests Specific Reinforcer
What is tact?
Naming of objects/events, reinforced by other people
What is Echoic Behavior?
Repeating, including prior to full understanding
What is Autoclitic Behavior?
Qualify responses, express relations, grammatical framework
When is learning more effective?
The information to be learned is presented in small steps
The learners are given rapid feedback concerning the accuracy of their learning
Learners are able to learn at their own pace
What is PSI?
Personalized Systems of Instruction
What is CBI?
Computer- Based Instruction
How do we know which reinforcers will work better than others?
Increase behavioral requirements needed to receive reinforcement until organism is no longer willing to “pay” the behavioral cost.
Operant Conditoning?
Focused on rate of responses
operant chamber
Free responding
Subject is placed in apparatus only to begin a session
Cumulative record
Instrumental conditoning?
Focused on time to solution
maze, runway, puzzle box
discrete trials
Ss is placed in apparatus to begin each trial in a session
Learning curve
What is Premack's Principle?
Responses can be reinforcers, and a more preferred response can reinforce a less preferred response
What is Timberlake's Disequilibrium Hypothesis?
Response deprivation is motivating, and a deprived response can reinforce another response

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