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Chemistry Make-Up

Terms

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Mega (M)
10^6
kilo (k)
10^3
hecto (h)
10^2
deka (da)
10^1
deci (d)
10^-1
centi (c)
10^-2
milli (m)
10^-3
mirco (u)
10^-6
nano (n)
10^-9
Angstrom (Ã…)
10^-10 m
K = C + 273.15
F = (1.8 x C) + 32
C = (F - 32) ÷ 1.8
Water = 1.000 g/mL
Glycerin = 1.26 g/mL
Magnesium = 1.74 g/mL
Aluminum = 2.70 g/mL
Lead = 11.34 g/mL
Mass
Density = ---------
Volume
Density = g/mL or g/cm^3
1 meter = 1.0936 yards
1 centimeter = .3937 inch
1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
1 kilometer = .62137 mile
1 mile = 5280 feet or 1.609 kilometers
1 kilogram = 2.20 pounds
1 pound = 453.59 grams
1 ounce = 28.3 grams
1 atomic mass unit = 1.6606 x 10^-27
1 liter = 10^-3 m^3, 1.0567 quarts
1 gallon = 3.785 liters
1 joule = 1 kg m^2/s^2
1 calorie = 4.184 joules
avogadro's number = 6.022 x 10^23
Is it Physical or Chemical Change:
Lighting a candle
Chemical
Stirring cake batter
Physical
Dissolving sugar in water
Physical
Decomposition of limestone by heat
Chemical
A leaf turning yellow
Chemical
Formation of bubles in a pot of water long before the water boils
Physical
Identify the reactants and products for the electrolysis of water
Reactants = H20
Products = H2 and O2
atomic number= number of protons in the nucleus
Electrons = number of protons in the nucleus
The average atomic mass can be calculated by multiplying the atomic mass of each isotope by the fraction of each isotope present and adding the results.
Ex.
(62.9298)(0.6909) = 43.48 amu
(64.9278)(0.3091) = 20.07 amu
-------
63.55 amu
Law of definite composition=
A compound always contains two or more elements combined in a definite proportion by mass
Law of multiple proportions=
Atoms of two or more elements may combine in different ratios to produce more than one compound
Aluminum
Al
Antimony
Sb
Argon
Ar
Arsenic
As
Barium
Ba
Bismuth
Bi
Boron
B
Bromine
Br
Cadmium
Cd
Calcium
Ca
Carbon
C
Chlorine
Cl
Chromium
Cr
Cobalt
Co
Copper
Cu
Fluorine
F
Gold
Au
Helium
He
Hydrogen
H
Iodine
I
Iron
Fe
Lead
Pb
Lithium
Li
Magnesium
Mg
Manganese
Mn
Mercury
Hg
Neon
Ne
Nickel
Ni
Nitrogen
N
Oxygen
O
Palladium
Pd
Phosphorus
P
Platinum
Pt
Plutonium
Pu
Potassium
K
Radium
Ra
Silicon
Si
Silver
Ag
Sodium
Na
Strontium
Sr
Sulfur
S
Tin
Sn
Titanium
Ti
Tungsten
W
Uranium
U
Xenon
Xe
Zinc
Zn
Antimony = Sb =
Stibium
Copper = Cu =
Cuprum
Gold = Au =
Aurum
Iron = Fe =
Ferrum
Lead = Pb =
Plumbum
Mercury = Hg =
Hydrargyrum
Potassium = K =
Kalium
Silver = Ag =
Argentum
Sodium = Na =
Natrium
Tin = Sn =
Stannum
Tungsten = W =
Wolfram
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Chlorine
Fluorine
Bromine
Iodine
Polyatomic Molecules
= 2
Polyatomic Molecules
Sulfur = 8 = S8
Phosphorus = 4 = P 4
Cations are named the same as their parent atoms, as shown:
K potassium = K⁺ potassium ion
Mg magnesium = Mg2⁺ magnesium ion
Al aluminum = Al3⁺ Aluminum ion
To name an anion consisting of one element, us the stem of the parent element name and change the ending to -ide:
F flourine = F⁻ fluoride ion
Br bromine = Br⁻ bromide ion
etc.
Transition metals
Cr 2⁺ or Cr 3⁺
Fe 2⁺ or Fe 3⁺
Cu ⁺ or Cu 2⁺
Ag ⁺
Cd 2⁺
Zn 2⁺
In classic nomenclature, when the metallix ion has only two cation types, the name of the metal (usually the Latin name) is modified with the suffixes -ous and -ic to distinguish between the two. The lower charge cation is given the -ous ending, and the
Binary compounds containing two nonmetals you give the first element a prefix- such as mono- or deca- and the second element ends in -ide

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