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2s History Test 1


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Social Darwinism
sucess is based on your talents (survival of the fittest)
Andrew Johnson
what to do with the confederates. how to make north happy and how to make south feel welcome
Radical republicans
wanted south to pay a price (punished for starting the civil war
what lincoln had believed
the only way the union would work if you accept the south back. (forgiving approach dies with him)
Power during Lincolns presidency
with the executive branch because people were behind him.
Power during johnson
power in congress
Constant battle btw
johnson (who said he would go with what lincoln want) and congres (who overides vetos)
13th amendment
slavery illigal
14th amendment
if you are born in the US you are a citizen
15 amendment
voting rights for black males
kkk(knights of the white camilian)
meant to keep blacks away from voting. they first used superstition but when it did not work they got harsher (started by Nathan Bedford Forrest)
Blacks life after slavery
-attempt to get educated
-freedmans beureau
-tried to find families
pregidice in north
Freedmans beureau
(oliver howard)
-help people be educated
-problem: few got land
10% plan
lincolns plan. 10% of white men who voted in the election of 1860 would swear loyalty to union and agree to the 13th amendment after which they could come back
why were republicans worried about the 10% plan
the former plantation owners would come back into power.
Wade Davis Bill
came from congress... They wanted 50% of the people to agree to the 14th amendment
pocket veto
(lincoln) vetoed the bill after congress was out of session
Johnson decides
do what lincoln would have wanted
enough radicals in congress to overide. They veto johnson a lot and johnson ends up having no power.
Military Reconstruction
districts were setup (5) and a military (union) general with troops were pout in each until they agreed to the 13th 14th and 15th developements
Reconstruction Act
Military act put into play
KKK/ Force Acts
If you agreed with the klan you went to jail (indefinatly). It gave the authority to stomp out the clan
Year that reconstruction ends
Congretional reconstuction
reconstuction eminaits from the capital
Examples of Remedies put forth by congress
1) Freedman's Bureau is renewed
2) Civil Rights Bill- gives citizenship to blacks. This challenges/ attacks the black codes (makes them unconstitutional)
3) Creation of the 14th amendment
Congretional election 1867ish
Clear choice: Radicals (harsh/proactive) or andrew johnsons ideas
Radical agenda wins. Important because it will show that reconstuction will come out of congress. They put military reconstruction into play and said that if ppl in the south wanted to come back they had to radify the 14th and eventually the 15th amendment
X-partie Milligan
Supreme Court Case: Concerning 1 person complaining what the military was doing. They said that you cant hold a trial in front of a military tribunal if their is a federal court near by. This is important because it riens in the military
south is back in union. all things congress was doing they were forced to compy
They were willing to back off the right to vote to put wight behind the 13th, 14th and 15th amendment. The wording of the 15th amendment made them upset because it said "male" and they wanted all ppl
Blacks are moving up
they get elected to low level officies (generals in south are not allowed to vote)
carpet baggers
used bags to carry luggage (derogatory) The came to start buisnesses to make money
white southerners who agreed with reconstuction
Louisiana Incident
25 black bodies killed by KKK
Tenure of office act
Congress put this in place because they had gotten wind that Johnson was going to fire secretary of war: edward stanton. It said: for the president to remove a cabinet member it must mass through the senate
can lead to inflation. costs up and worth goes down.
He is taken to the house where he is impeached for high crimes and misdemenors. The the senate decides if he is guilty or not. he is saved by one vote: ross who said you cant get rid of a president for pure politics (saves democracy)
Sewards Folly
Aguisition of Alaska-Secretary of state: seward thoguht it would be a good idea. from Russia for 7.2 Millon. People thought it was a joke. does become important.- oil and was a buffer against russia later
Election of 1868
Grant (rep) vs Seymore (dem from ny was gov)
who voted for grant
x-black slaves and solgiers put grant over the top- remember what he did during the civil war
who voted for seymore
white southerners
Grant's presidency
era of good stealings
Credit mobilier scandel
After civil war, developing west was top priority. (transportation) Union Pacific railroad was formed. The leads of the U.P.R. decided to form a constuction company who will do the work. Credit Mobiler. Congress was supposed to pick best company to build the railroad. UPR got stalk in credit mobielr and when it does well then the stalk goes up,. The up says the if you choose credit mobelier than you can having stalk in it (bribes). It gets found out and congressmen loose their job and creid mobielr is destroyed. (VP was even in on it)
Wiskey Ring Scandel
You have to pay a tax if you are a producer of whiskey. Some of the officials who collected it were skimming money. They said if you would say that the tax was paid in exchange for a little bit of cash. Even the private secretary of grant was in on it.
Belknap Scandel
Belknap was the secretary of war. He controls all war department supplies. He was sending all the equpitment from the civil war to the indians for personal profit. he was forced to resign
All scandels
weakened democracy and makes the people cynical
Local scandel
NYC- Boss Tweed. People from twee (underground payroll) say they will give the immgrants a house and all you ahve to do is vote for tweed or you will lose your job. Gave gold watches to firemen and said "vote for him" If you crossed tweed you might as well moved
Election 1872
Greeley (ny tribunal: newspaper guy) vs. Grant. Grant wins and hopes that 2nd term will be better
Read for economic crash. People were spending money on companies (stalk). A lot of ppl started asking questions about the companies and the prises went down and people started to panic. Caused people go bankrupt
Grants reaction
he wanted to make more money and dump it into the economy and hope it would boost it.
republicans said
why not use silver (did not get anywhere)
1876 election
(grant considered running again but congress asks that he doesnt) republican Hayes (from ohio "great unknown") vs democrat- tilden from ny (stopped boss tweed) Tight vote. Neither got enough votes (Tilden was pretty close thought) Problem was Florida, Louisiana, and south carolina
Cmission of 15
created to decide what to do about presidencial election. 5-senate 5-house of rep 5- other. 7-8 (rep)
Great compromise
Democrats say if you dont listen to us w will say it was a fraud. They wanted to end reconstuction and then hayes wins
Jims Crow laws
segregation: "color" and whites only; did not want black men voting because they voted rep.
literacy tests
if you cant read, you cant vote. The questions were hard (given to everyone)
Grandfather clause
loop hole becasue ppor whites wouldnt pass litteracy tests. It said if a grandfather had voted before they could vote
Poll tax
if you payed a tax you could vote. but if the grandfather clause applied than it was free.
Plessy V. Ferguson
Seperate but equal
the supreme courts decision
hanging became practice. and a public affair. People asked gov to pass antilynching acts but southern whiets in congress blocked them
Discrimination against immigrants
chinese and Irish
1st job held by the chinese
minning. (cheep labor). A lot of people felt they were stealing their jobs. Gov put tax on mines if hired them.
2nd job for the chinese
railroad. (see p. 5 of notes!) They build the transpacific railroad. When its over people retreat to san francisco and other places (china towns). They were excluded from jobs
3rd job
laundry buisness. people were still not happy with chinese
1882 Chinese exclusion act
no more chinese immigrants allowed in the country.
AntiCollie clubs
poped up to keep chinese in check in cali
Hayes big crusade
wanted to attack the spoils system (if you supported canidate than you get a job) he said it was weaking democracy. Hayes doesnt run again because he could not get ride of it.
Share Cropping
a black man doesn't wanna get smacked w/the vagrancy laws or wutev, can't get a job, so agrees to work land for a landlord, he has to pay outrageos rent, we're talking like 20-30% of the crops, and it's really hard to make ends meet when so much of your profit is going to pay off your rent, so you get into debt with the landlord, b/c you can't pay them, and hav to giv them more and more and can't just walk away from the bargain b/c ur in debt but u can't get out of debt so ur basically just totally FUCKED....if the landlord happens to run the general store as well you're prob. buying ur goods from him, so ur even more in debt
Election of 1880
Republicans split into half breeds and stalwarts
Half breeds
thought reform was good- could strengthen republican party.
liked spoil system
halfbreeds et James garfield on the ticked and would have a stalwart, chester A Arthur as VP
they are struggling but they figure out they are losing because they keep waving the bloody shirt. They nominate a union general, winfield hancook. He gets the whites down south and northern votes.
Who wins
clevland because when blane lost ny it hurt him
Why are the stalwarts upset
becasue they are scared he will reform
Charles Guiteau
shoots garfield on train platform. he is tried and hanged.
next prez
Aurthur- stalwarts hope to quiet down reform
Arthur decides
he is going to carry out what president wanted to do becasue that is who they people vote for.
Pendleton act
put into place by aurther. he reformed the spoil system. 1) no loger give campaign constributions to ppl running for presidency. *(can only give money to party) 2) cannot pressure people to give money. (or else lose job). and he creates the civil service commision
civil serivce commission
appoints people to federal jobs based on a test you take (civil service test).they give jobs based on merit
not happy. they will not reelcted aruther
1884 election
James Blane (rep) vs. Clevland (dem)
Mulligan letters
letters written to a boston man by blane about a corruption he was involved in.
people who quit the party and become democrats because of mulligan letters
mugwumps love him because he pro reform but he has an illigit kid
Rum Romanism and Rebellion
speach given in ny by A minister who said that blane was the good canidate. It was a statement against Irish catholics. Blane keeps quiet.
Clevlands interests
1) reform: penalton act 2)loves big buisnesses 3) believes in laissez faire
lassiez faire
let things be the gov should not interfere with buisness.
2 former confederates to bring union together. but he finds it difficult to carry out because nothing was going anywhere
vederins, widows and disabled
from the civil war wanted their pensions he has some bills vetoed because there was no proof that veterins fought or hurt during war and they got upset.
clevland lowers it which hurts big buisness because products from other countries are cheaper. This forces people to make a better quality product. Tarrif= low competition and crappy product
election of 1888
clevland vs. benjamin harrison. Big buisness puts money into defeating clevland because of tarrif (along with the veterins) and harrison wins.
Does the exact opposite of clevland. HIGH TARRIF and all bills signed for veterins
people were fed up with lassiez faire.
Agrarian movement
(populist movement) back bone were the farmers because the high tarrif hurt them (farm equpt)
4 things populists wanted
1) graduated income tax 2) government ownership of railroads and telephone industry. (hope prises wil be redulated because monopolies were forming) 3) waqnt direct election of senate 4) formation of unions
Graduated income tax
the more you make the more you pay
they start winning local elections who make rules to protect the little guy
Common remedy for workers
join unions and strike
AFoL and Nights of Labor
2 major union parties. Got up to 7000 memebers.
Homestead Strike
Steal Mill outside of pittsburg. They strike and they send in the pinkerton guards to break it up but they find that the workers are armed. 10 people are killed. Result" US Army was sent to break up strike (took months) and their labo union was crushed. Shows that people are willing to strike if they are wronged
Pinkerton guards
detective/ security agency
Pullman Car Strike
Pullman came along and thought lets make cars to make train traveling more comfortable. Workers lived in homes around the factory (owned by pullman) he said they are going to lower wages and raise rent. Eugene Debs comes around and says everyone who works for railroads do not go to work. (paralize the nation) Gov of Illinois said im with the workers (not going to send in army). He says work it out with the workers. The big buisnesses get angry and go to clevland. (pro buisness). He sends the military because of the US mail wont get to ppl. Big buisness go to court against debs. The regular court issued and injunction. Debs did not listen but the supreme court agreed with buisnesses
Eugene Debs
head of the railroad union, involved with pullman car strike
tells the unions to stop the strike until workers and management work it out. This was a tool used by big buisnneses for years
Haymarket Square
Group of workers were strikeing for reduction of work hours. Some immigrants who were Anorchests wanted to turn the system upside down. They march with workers. The police show up (gets violent). Anarchists decide we will relatiate. Call up a special meeting. The police approach to break it up- violence. someone hearled a bomb into the police line. Newspaper spun it that it was workers and anarchists working together. blacklast against labor union. some people were arrested and put to death with no proof against them. They also get blacklisted
Black list
The people decide not to associate themselves. labor people wouldnt geet jobs and this forces them to quit unions.
Bessamure process
improved steal
Developed Steal buisness
andrew carnegie in pa
oil industry
pa, rockerfeller 90% of all oil- standard oil
if a groupe gets thoger and puts a trust they make money. They have lawyers go vist different companies to give up shares (ownership) in exchange for shares in the trust. People did it becasue the shares would be worth a lot if a lot of buisnesses do it. Tons of ownership owned by a few. Populists saw this as a threat to capitalism
Sherman antitrust act
no more trust and no more monopolies. problem: justice department had to inforce it. They only went after the big ones as examples. ex. standard oil
limited liability
begore people put money together to start a compangy but after the year they realize that they are not doing well. they did not have money and creditors made the owners chalk it up even if you have to sell your home/ give up retirement. Government people said no one wants to go into buisness now only people will loose everything they sold off associaled with the buisness (initial investment) They couldnt take personal money
1887 Munn Vs. Illinois
Grain elevator owners sue the state gov that pop were putting reulations on big buisnesses. Illnois/ populists win because they prove "public intest" it is hurting the pub
wabash case
populists were regulateing interstate commerce with railroad. The supreme court says the state cannot regulate interstate commerce. it is left to the federal gov
interstate commerce act
(passed by federal gov) Made sure railroads charged reasonable rices. if there was a complaint than they would investigate and if they found out they were charing too much they must lower their prices. The problmen that the judges did not inforce it.
Total cases about big buisnesses.
taylor was the guru of big buisness. he supported the assembly line and have one ly thing that each person would know. got rid of killsed lavorers. bad news for workers. devalues the people. made people careful becasue they can be easily replaced.
2 things labor got from management
closed shop and yellow dog contract is done away with
closed shop
everyone who works in shop must be part of union.
yellow dog contract
piece of paper said that as long as you work here you wont join unions
origin of species
The woen chrisian temperence union
nyc. to stop the sale of alcohol
Carrie nation
famous wctu memeber. She got a hatchet and a bible around to all the bars and smashed licour mugs.
citys got hug- melting pot. They came to work- cheap labor
group that did not like immigrants
wome got the local vote (wyoming)
Chautauqua movement
adult education: famous speakers in their fields traveled the us. (started in ny) and give seminares
Gilded age
conditions for americans are not great. the fed gov was not there with safty net. at mercy of private charities
Salvation army
mixed charity with religion. (preaching)... one of the first private charities
American Red Cross
national dissaters
Hull House
Jane addams, Chicago: Home run by college educated women to provide a house for poor women and children. Help them develop life skills to take care of themselves
Tuskegee Insititue
school setup by booker T. Waskington. In alabama. Train young black in a skill to be self sifficiant. believed that until blacks are valuable they will not be accepted in society.
Instructor at tuskegee
george washington carbor. took science and campe up with different products
w.e.d. debois
desagreed with washington He believed that social equality should be now not later. he believe in education would bring equality. (one of the founders of the NAAC)
brooklyn bridge
Huck finn
mark twain
Sky scrapers
chicago first. Louis sulivan was able to do it with steal
statue of liberty
1886. gift from france
because of bad conditions
eople looked for entertainment: cooney island. central park, basket ball, and baseball, boxing
started in springfield mass. by james naismith
first team: reds from cincinatti
South/North decoda indians
sioux (most agressive)
what keeps them from winning the battle against settlers
1) diferent tives never united 2) technology: not used to weapondry 3) disease: countless die
Little bighorn
custards last stand. whole cavelry unity whipped out
Crazy horse and sitting bull
given credit for this battle
Appachi Indians
Geronimo. raids. They never could get him. Finally he is shopped to fla and they all become farmers. Geronimo bame side show. you could take his picture with him for a fee
Buffalo bill
famous for the number of buffelo he shot.
Buffelo issue
railroads wanted them shot because they were getting on tracks. indians were bad because they were important tothem. The numbers dwindled to practically nothing
dawes act
stop tension between gov and indians. They will give inidans a certain amount of acerage to farm. hope that indians would break up trives. you can be a us citizen. you get to keep the land if you work it for 25 years. you get titled to it. I tfails. Indians realize they cant do this because this was not how they were raise (raised to be with tribe)
battle of wounded knee
nebraska massaccre. americans killsed over 200 ppl. it did not have to happen (senior citizen and women)
Coxey's army
people were going through depression. he said that epople (fed gov) needs to help. he took a group of 500 to put preasue to give jobs. Clevland has him thrown into jail for walking on the grass. 1st time people go to dc to protest
last election for 19th century
winner: willian Mckinley. defeats #1 populist william jennings bryant. (1st to go around in train to publize.) bug buisnesses put mone with mckinley
vice prez for second go around
teddy roosevelt

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